EBOOK

Traffic Engineering


€ 226,99
 
gebunden
Lieferbar innert 2 Wochen
Juni 2010

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

"Traffic Engineering, 4e, " is ideal for a one/two-semester undergraduate survey, and/or for graduate courses on Traffic Engineering, Highway Capacity Analysis, and Traffic Control and Operations.This unique text focuses on the key engineering skills required to practice traffic engineering in a modern setting. It includes material on the latest standards and criteria of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (2003 Edition and forthcoming 2010 Edition), the Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (2004 Edition), the Highway Capacity Manual (2000 Edition and forthcoming 2010 Edition), and other critical references. It also presents both fundamental theory and a broad range of applications to modern problems.


Inhaltsverzeichnis

Contents Preface xiii 1 Introduction to Traffic Engineering 1 1.1 Traffic Engineering as a Profession 1 1.1.1 Safety: The Primary Objective 1 1.1.2 Other Objectives 2 1.1.3 Responsibility, Ethics, and Liability in Traffic Engineering 2 1.2 Transportation Systems and Their Function 3 1.2.1 The Nature of Transportation Demand 4 1.2.2 Concepts of Mobility and Accessibility 5 1.2.3 People, Goods, and Vehicles 6 1.2.4 Transportation Modes 6 1.3 Highway Legislation and History in the United States 8 1.3.1 The National Pike and the States' Rights Issue 8 1.3.2 Key Legislative Milestones 9 1.3.3 The National System of Interstate and Defense Highways 11 1.4 Elements of Traffic Engineering 12 1.5 Modern Problems for the Traffic Engineer 13 1.6 Standard References for the Traffic Engineer 14 1.7 Metric versus U.S. Units 15 1.8 Closing Comments 15 References 15 Part 1 Traffic Components and Characteristics 16 2 Road User and Vehicle Characteristics 17 2.1 Overview of Traffic Stream Components 17 2.1.1 Dealing with Diversity 17 2.1.2 Addressing Diversity through Uniformity 18 2.2 Road Users 18 2.2.1 Visual Characteristics of Drivers 19 2.2.2 Important Visual Deficits 20 2.2.3 Perception-Reaction Time 20 2.2.4 Pedestrian Characteristics 22 2.2.5 Impacts of Drugs and Alcohol on Road Users 24 2.2.6 Impacts of Aging on Road Users 25 2.2.7 Psychological, Personality, and Related Factors 25 2.3 Vehicles 25 2.3.1 Concept of the Design Vehicle 26 2.3.2 Turning Characteristics of Vehicles 27 2.3.3 Braking Characteristics 29 2.3.4 Acceleration Characteristics 30 2.4 Total Stopping Distance and Applications 31 2.4.1 Safe Stopping Sight Distance 31 2.4.2 Decision Sight Distance 32 2.4.3 Other Sight Distance Applications 33 2.4.4 Change (Yellow) and Clearance (All Red) Intervals for a Traffic Signal 33 2.5 Closing Comments 33 References 33 Problems 34 3 Roadways and Their Geometric Characteristics 35 3.1 Highway Functions and Classification 35 3.1.1 Trip Functions 35 3.1.2 Highway Classification 36 3.1.3 Preserving the Function of a Facility 38 3.2 Introduction to Highway Design Elements 39 3.2.1 Horizontal Alignment 39 3.2.2 Vertical Alignment 39 3.2.3 Cross-Sectional Elements 40 3.2.4 Surveying and Stationing 40 3.3 Horizontal Alignment of Highways 40 3.3.1 Quantifying the Severity of Horizontal Curves: Radius and Degree of Curvature 40 3.3.2 Review of Trigonometric Functions 41 3.3.3 Critical Characteristics of Horizontal Curves 41 3.3.4 Superelevation of Horizontal Curves 44 3.3.5 Spiral Transition Curves 47 3.3.6 Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves 51 3.3.7 Compound Horizontal Curves 52 3.3.8 Reverse Horizontal Curves 52 3.4 Vertical Alignment of Highways 53 3.4.1 Grades 53 3.4.2 Geometric Characteristics of Vertical Curves 56 3.4.3 Sight Distance on Vertical Curves 58 3.4.4 Other Minimum Controls on Length of Vertical Curves 59 3.4.5 Some Design Guidelines for Vertical Curves 59 3.5 Cross-Section Elements of Highways 60 3.5.1 Travel Lanes and Pavement 60 3.5.2 Shoulders 61 3.5.3 Side-Slopes for Cuts and Embankments 61 3.5.4 Guardrail 61 3.6 Closing Comments 62 References 63 Problems 64 4 Introduction to Traffic Control Devices 65 4.1 The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices 65 4.1.1 History and Background 65 4.1.2 General Principles of the MUTCD 66 4.1.3 Contents of the MUTCD 67 4.1.4 Legal Aspects of the MUTCD 67 4.1.5 Communicating with the Driver 68 4.2 Traffic Markings 69 4.2.1 Colors and Patterns 69 4.2.2 Longitudinal Markings 69 4.2.3 Transverse Markings 71 4.2.4 Object Markers 73 4.2.5 Delineators 73 4.3 Traffic Signs 74 4.3.1 Regulatory Signs 75 4.3.2 Warning Signs 78 4.3.3 Guide Signs 80 4.4 Traffic Signals 87 4.4.1 Traffic Control Signals 87 4.4.2 Pedestrian Signals 91 4.4.3 Other Traffic Signals 93 4.4.4 Traffic Signal Controllers 93 4.5 Special Types of Control 93 4.6 Summary and Conclusion 94 References 94 Problems 94 5 Traffic Stream Characteristics 95 5.1 Types of Facilities 95 5.2 Traffic Stream Parameters 96 5.2.1 Volume and Rate of Flow 96 5.2.2 Speed and Travel Time 100 5.2.3 Density and Occupancy 101 5.2.4 Spacing and Headway: Microscopic Parameters 102 5.3 Relationships among Flow Rate, Speed, and Density 103 5.4 Closing Comments 105 References 105 Problems 105 6 Introduction to Traffic Flow Theory 107 6.1 Basic Models of Uninterrupted Flow 107 6.1.1 Historical Background 107 6.1.2 Deriving Speed--Flow and Density--Flow Curves from a Speed-Density Curve 108 6.1.3 Determining Capacity from Speed-Flow-Density Relationships 109 6.1.4 Modern Uninterrupted Flow Characteristics 109 6.1.5 Calibrating a Speed-Flow-Density Relationship 111 6.1.6 Curve Fitting 112 6.2 Queueing Theory 112 6.2.1 One Capacity or Two? An Illustration Using Deterministic Queueing 113 6.2.2 A Problem with Deterministic Queueing 114 6.2.3 The Basic Approach to Queueing Analysis: Random Patterns 115 6.3 Shock-Wave Theory and Applications 117 6.3.1 Different Flow-Density Curves 117 6.3.2 Rate of growth 118 6.4 Characteristics of Interrupted Flow 119 6.5 Closing Comments 119 References 120 Problems 120 Part 2 Traffic Studies and Programs 121 7 Statistical Applications in Traffic Engineering 122 7.1 Overview of Probability Functions and Statistics 123 7.1.1 Discrete versus Continuous Functions 123 7.1.2 Randomness and Distributions Describing Randomness 123 7.1.3 Organizing Data 123 7.1.4 Common Statistical Estimators 124 7.2 The Normal Distribution and Its Applications 125 7.2.1 The Standard Normal Distribution 126 7.2.2 Important Characteristics of the Normal Distribution Function 128 7.3 Confidence Bounds 128 7.4 Sample Size Computations 129 7.5 Addition of Random Variables 129 7.5.1 The Central Limit Theorem 130 7.6 The Binomial Distribution Related to the Bernoulli and Normal Distributions 131 7.6.1 Bernoulli and the Binomial Distribution 131 7.6.2 Asking People Questions: Survey Results 133 7.6.3 The Binomial and the Normal Distributions 133 7.7 The Poisson Distribution 133 7.8 Hypothesis Testing 134 7.8.1 Before-and-After Tests with Two Distinct Choices 135 7.8.2 Before-and-After Tests with Generalized Alternative Hypothesis 137 7.8.3 Other Useful Statistical Tests 138 7.9 Summary and Closing Comments 144 References 146 Problems 146 8 Traffic Data Collection and Reduction Methodologies 148 8.1 Applications of Traffic Data 148 8.2 Types of Studies 149 8.3 Data Collection Methodologies 150 8.3.1 Manual Data Collection Techniques 150 8.3.2 Portable Traffic Data Equipment/Semiautomated Studies 155 8.3.3 Permanent Detectors 156 8.4 Data Reduction 159 8.5 Cell Phones 159 8.6 Aerial Photography and Digitizing Technology 159 8.7 Interview Studies 162 8.7.1 Comprehensive Home Interview Studies 162 8.7.2 Roadside Interview Studies 162 8.7.3 Destination-Based Interview Studies 162 8.7.4 Statistical Issues 163 8.8 Concluding Comments 163 References 163 Problems 163 9 Volume Studies and Characteristics 165 9.1 Critical Parameters 165 9.2 Volume, Demand, and Capacity 166 9.3 Volume Characteristics 169 9.3.1 Hourly Traffic Variation Patterns: The Phenomenon of the Peak Hour 169 9.3.2 Subhourly Variation Patterns: Flow Rates Versus Volumes 172 9.3.3 Daily Variation Patterns 172 9.3.4 Monthly or Seasonal Variation Patterns 172 9.3.5 Some Final Thoughts on Volume Variation Patterns 172 9.4 Intersection Volume Studies 174 9.4.1 Arrival Versus Departure Volumes: A Key Issue for Intersection Studies 174 9.4.2 Special Considerations for Signalized Intersections 176 9.4.3 Presentation of Intersection Volume Data 176 9.5 Limited Network Volume Studies 176 9.5.1 Control Counts 178 9.5.2 Coverage Counts 179 9.5.3 An Illustrative Study 179 9.6 Statewide Counting Programs 184 9.6.1 Calibrating Daily Variation Factors 185 9.6.2 Calibrating Monthly Variation Factors 185 9.6.3 Grouping Data from Control Count Locations 187 9.6.4 Using the Results 187 9.7 Specialized Counting Studies 189 9.7.1 Origin and Destination Counts 189 9.7.2 Cordon Counts 192 9.7.3 Screen-Line Counts 193 9.8 Closing Comments 194 References 194 Problems 194 10 Speed, Travel Time, and Delay Studies 197 10.1 Introduction 197 10.2 Spot Speed Studies 198 10.2.1 Speed Definitions of Interest 198 10.2.2 Uses of Spot Speed Data 198 10.2.3 Analysis of Spot Speed Data 199 10.3 Travel-Time Studies 210 10.3.1 Travel-Time Data Along an Arterial: An Example of the Statistics of Travel Times 211 10.3.2 Overriding Default Values: Another Example of Statistical Analysis of Travel-Time Data 213 10.3.3 Travel-Time Displays 215 10.4 Intersection Delay Studies 216 10.5 Closing Comments 220 References 220 Problems 220 11 Highway Traffic Safety: Studies, Statistics, and Programs 222 11.1 Introduction 222 11.2 Approaches to Highway Safety 224 11.2.1 Exposure Control 224 11.2.2 Accident Risk Control/Accident Prevention 225 11.2.3 Behavior Modification 225 11.2.4 Injury Control 225 11.2.5 Postinjury Management 226 11.2.6 Planning Actions to Implement Policy Strategies 226 11.2.7 National Policy Initiatives 227 11.3 Accident Data Collection and Record Systems 227 11.3.1 Accident Reporting 228 11.3.2 Manual Filing Systems 228 11.3.3 Computer Record Systems 229 11.4 Accident Statistics 231 11.4.1 Types of Statistics 231 11.4.2 Accident Rates 231 11.4.3 Statistical Displays and Their Use 233 11.4.4 Identifying High-Accident Locations 234 11.4.5 Before-and-After Accident Analysis 235 11.5 Site Analysis 237 11.5.1 Collision Diagrams 238 11.5.2 Condition Diagrams 239 11.5.3 Interpretation of Condition and Collision Diagrams 240 11.6 Development of Countermeasures 241 11.7 Closing Comments 241 References 241 Problems 245 12 Parking 247 12.1 Introduction 247 12.2 Parking Generation and Supply Needs 247 12.2.1 Parking Generation 248 12.2.2 Zoning Regulations 251 12.3 Parking Studies and Characteristics 251 12.3.1 Proximity: How Far Will Parkers Walk? 251 12.3.2 Parking Inventories 254 12.3.3 Accumulation and Duration 256 12.3.4 Other Types of Parking Studies 259 12.4 Design Aspects of Parking Facilities 260 12.4.1 Some Basic Parking Dimensions 261 12.4.2 Parking Modules 262 12.4.3 Separating Small and Large Vehicle Areas 263 12.4.4 Parking Garages 266 12.5 Parking Programs 267 12.6 Closing Comments 268 References 269 Problems 269 Part 3 Freeways and Rural Highways 270 13 Fundamental Concepts for Uninterrupted Flow Facilities 271 13.1 Types of Uninterrupted Flow Facilities 271 13.2 The Highway Capacity Manual 272 13.3 The Capacity Concept 273 13.3.1 The Current Definition 273 13.3.2 Historical Background 273 13.3.3 Current Values of Capacity for Uninterrupted Flow Facilities 274 13.4 The Level of Service Concept 274 13.4.1 Historical Development of the Level of Service Concept 274 13.4.2 The Fourth Edition of the HCM (2000): The Current Definition 275 13.4.3 Incorporating Road User Perceptions into Levels of Service 276 13.5 Service Flow Rates and Service Volumes 277 13.6 The v/c Ratio and Its Use in Capacity Analysis 278 13.7 Problems in Use of Level of Service 279 13.8 Closing Comments 279 References 279 Problems 280 14 Basic Freeway Segments and Multilane Highways 281 14.1 Facility Types 281 14.2 Basic Freeway and Multilane Highway Characteristics 282 14.2.1 Speed-Flow Characteristics 282 14.2.2 Levels of Service 282 14.2.3 Service Flow Rates and Capacity 286 14.3 Analysis Methodologies for Basic Freeway Sections and Multilane Highways 287 14.3.1 Types of Analysis 287 14.3.2 Determining the Free-Flow Speed 289 14.3.3 Determining the Heavy-Vehicle Factor 292 14.3.4 Determining the Driver Population Factor 299 14.4 Sample Problems 299 14.5 Calibration Speed-Flow-Density Curves 305 14.6 Calibrating Passenger Car Equivalents 305 14.6.1 Driver-Determined Equivalence 306 14.6.2 Equivalence Based on Constant Spacing 307 14.6.3 Equivalence Based on Constant Speed 308 14.6.4 Macroscopic Calibration of the Heavy-Vehicle Factor 308 14.6.5 Additional References on Heavy Vehicle Factors 308 14.7 Calibrating the Driver Population Factor 308 14.8 Adjustment Factors to Free-Flow Speed 309 14.9 Software 309 14.10 Source Documents 309 References 309 Problems 310 15 Weaving, Merging, and Diverging Movements on Freeways and Multilane Highways 312 15.1 Turbulence Areas on Freeways and Multilane Highways 312 15.2 Level-of-Service Criteria 313 15.3 A Common Point: Converting Demand Volumes 315 15.4 Weaving Segments: Basic Characteristics and Variables 315 15.4.1 Flows in a Weaving Area 316 15.4.2 Critical Geometric Variables 317 15.5 Computational Procedures for Weaving Area Analysis 321 15.5.1 Parameters Used in Weaving Segment Analysis 321 15.5.2 Volume Adjustment (Step 2) 321 15.5.3 Determining Configuration Characteristics (Step 3) 321 15.5.4 Determining the Maximum Weaving Length (Step 4) 323 15.5.5 Determine the Capacity of the Weaving Segment (Step 5) 324 15.5.6 Determining Total Lane-Changing Rates Within the Weaving Segment (Step 6) 325 15.5.7 Determining the Average Speed of Vehicles Within a Weaving Segment (Step 7) 327 15.5.8 Determining Density and Level of Service in a Weaving Segment (Step 8) 328 15.6 Basic Characteristics of Merge and Diverge Segment Analysis 328 15.7 Computational Procedures for Merge and Diverge Segments 329 15.7.1 Overview 329 15.7.2 Estimating Demand Flow Rates in Lanes 1 and 2 (Step 2) 331 15.7.3 Capacity Considerations 334 15.7.4 Determining Density and Level of Service in the Ramp Influence Area 335 15.7.5 Determining Expected Speed Measures 336 15.7.6 Special Cases 336 15.8 Sample Problems in Weaving, Merging, and Diverging Analysis 337 15.9 Analysis of Freeway Facilities 346 15.9.1 Segmenting the Freeway 346 15.9.2 Analysis Models 346 References 348 Problems 348 16 Two-Lane Highways 355 16.1 Introduction 355 16.2 Design Standards 357 16.3 Passing Sight Distance on Two-Lane Highways 359 16.4 Capacity and Level-of-Service Analysis of Two-Lane Rural Highways 360 16.4.1 Capacity 361 16.4.2 Level of Service 361 16.4.3 Types of Analysis 362 16.4.4 Free-Flow Speed 363 16.4.5 Estimating Demand Flow Rate 364 16.4.6 Estimating Average Travel Speed 371 16.4.7 Determining Percent Time Spent Following 371 16.5 Sample Problems in Analysis of Rural Two-Lane Highways 371 16.5.1 Analysis of a Class I Rural Two-Lane Highway in Rolling Terrain 371 16.5.2 Single-Direction Analysis of a Specific Grade 377 16.6 The Impact of Passing and Truck Climbing Lanes 378 16.6.1 Evaluating the Impact of Passing Lanes 378 16.6.2 Evaluating the Impact of Climbing Lanes 380 16.7 Summary 381 References 381 Problems 381 17 Signing and Marking for Freeways and Rural Highways 383 17.1 Traffic Markings on Freeways and Rural Highways 383 17.1.1 Freeway Markings 383 17.1.2 Rural Highway Markings 383 17.1.3 Ramp Junction Markings 385 17.2 Establishing and Posting of Speed Limits 388 17.3 Guide Signing of Freeways and Rural Highways 390 17.3.1 Reference Location Posts 390 17.3.2 Numbered Highway Systems 390 17.3.3 Exit Numbering Systems 392 17.3.4 Route Sign Assemblies 393 17.3.5 Freeway and Expressway Guide Signing 394 17.3.6 Guide Signing for Conventional Roads 397 17.4 Other Signs on Freeways and Rural Highways 398 References 399 Problems 401 Part 4 The Intersection 403 18 The Hierarchy of Intersection Control 404 18.1 Level I Control: Basic Rules of the Road 405 18.2 Level II Control: YIELD and STOP Control 407 18.2.1 Two-Way Stop Control 408 18.2.2 Yield Control 410 18.2.3 Multiway Stop Control 410 18.3 Level III Control: Traffic Control Signals 411 18.3.1 Advantages of Traffic Signal Control 411 18.3.2 Disadvantages of Traffic Signal Control 412 18.3.3 Warrants for Traffic Signals 412 18.3.4 Summary 421 18.3.5 A Sample Problem in Application of Signal Warrants 422 18.4 Closing Comments 426 References 426 Problems 426 19 Elements of Intersection Design and Layout 431 19.1 Intersection Design Objectives and Considerations 431 19.2 A Basic Starting Point: Sizing the Intersection 432 19.2.1 Unsignalized Intersections 432 19.2.2 Signalized Intersections 433 19.3 Intersection Channelization 435 19.3.1 General Principles 435 19.3.2 Some Examples 435 19.3.3 Channelizing Right Turns 437 19.4 Special Situations at Intersections 437 19.4.1 Intersections at Skewed Angles 437 19.4.2 T-Intersections: Opportunities for Creativity 440 19.4.3 Offset Intersections 441 19.4.4 Special Treatments for Heavy Left-Turn Movements 445 19.5 Street Hardware for Signalized Intersections 448 19.6 Closing Comments 453 References 453 Problems 453 20 Basic Principles of Intersection Signalization 455 20.1 Terms and Definitions 455 20.1.1 Components of a Signal Cycle 456 20.1.2 Types of Signal Operation 456 20.1.3 Treatment of Left Turns and Right Turns 457 20.2 Discharge Headways, Saturation Flow, Lost Times, and Capacity 459 20.2.1 Saturation Headway and Saturation Flow Rate 460 20.2.2 Start-Up Lost Time 460 20.2.3 Clearance Lost Time 460 20.2.4 Total Lost Time and the Concept of Effective GREEN Time 460 20.2.5 Capacity of an Intersection Lane or Lane Group 461 20.2.6 Notable Studies on Saturation Headways, Flow Rates, and Lost Times 462 20.3 The Critical-Lane and Time-Budget Concepts 463 20.3.1 The Maximum Sum of Critical-Lane Volumes: One View of Signalized Intersection Capacity 464 20.3.2 Finding an Appropriate Cycle Length 465 20.4 The Concept of Left-Turn (and Right-Turn) Equivalency 468 20.5 Delay as a Measure of Effectiveness 470 20.5.1 Types of Delay 470 20.5.2 Basic Theoretical Models of Delay 471 20.5.3 Inconsistencies in Random and Overflow Delay 477 20.5.4 Delay Models in the HCM 478 20.5.5 Examples in Delay Estimation 478 20.6 Overview 479 References 480 Problems 480 21 Fundamentals of Signal Timing and Design: Pretimed Signals 483 21.1 Development of Signal Phase Plans 484 21.1.1 Treatment of Left Turns 484 21.1.2 General Considerations in Signal Phasing 486 21.1.3 Phase and Ring Diagrams 486 21.1.4 Common Phase Plans and Their Use 486 21.1.5 Summary and Conclusion 496 21.2 Determining Vehicular Signal Requirements 496 21.2.1 Change and Clearance Intervals 496 21.2.2 Determining Lost Times 498 21.2.3 Determining the Sum of Critical-Lane Volumes 498 21.2.4 Determining the Desired Cycle Length 500 21.2.5 Splitting the Green 501 21.3 Determining Pedestrian Signal Requirements 501 21.4 Compound Signal Timing 503 21.5 Sample Signal Timing Applications 504 21.6 References 515 References 515 Problems 515 22 Fundamentals of Signal Timing: Actuated Signals 519 22.1 Types of Actuated Control 520 22.2 Detectors and Detection 521 22.3 Actuated Control Features and Operation 522 22.3.1 Actuated Controller Features 522 22.3.2 Actuated Controller Operation 523 22.4 Actuated Signal Timing and Design 524 22.4.1 Phase Plans 525 22.4.2 Minimum Green Times 525 22.4.3 Passage Time 526 22.4.4 Detector Location 527 22.4.5 Yellow and All-Red Intervals 527 22.4.6 Maximum Green Times and the Critical Cycle 528 22.4.7 Pedestrian Requirements for Actuated Signals 529 22.4.8 Dual-Entry Feature 529 22.4.9 Recall Features 529 22.5 Examples in Actuated Signal Design and Timing 530 References 535 Problems 535 23 Critical Movement Analysis of Signalized Intersections 538 23.1 The TRB Circular 212 Methodology 539 23.2 A Planning Approach to Signalized Intersection Analysis 539 23.2.1 Step 1: Identify Lane Geometry 539 23.2.2 Step 2: Identify Demand Volumes 539 23.2.3 Step 3: Identify Phasing 540 23.2.4 Step 4: Left-Turn Check 540 23.2.5 Step 5: Assignment of Lane Volumes 540 23.2.6 Step 6: Determining Critical-Lane Volumes and the Sum of Critical-Lane Volumes 541 23.2.7 Step 7: Determine Probable Level of Service 541 23.2.8 Sample Problem: Planning Application 541 23.3 An Operations and Design Approach to Signalized Intersection Analysis 544 23.3.1 Steps 1 Through 3 545 23.3.2 Step 4: Convert Demand Volumes to Equivalent Passenger-Car Volumes 545 23.3.3 Step 5: Convert Passenger-Car Equivalents to Through-Car Equivalents 546 23.3.4 Step 6: Converting Through-Car Equivalents Under Prevailing Conditions to Through-Car Equivalents Under Ideal Conditions 547 23.3.5 Assigning Lane Flow Rates 548 23.3.6 Finding Critical-Lane Flow Rates for Each Signal Phase 548 23.3.7 Capacity and v/c Ratios 549 23.3.8 Delay and Level of Service 550 23.3.9 A Worksheet for Critical Movement Analysis 552 23.3.10 Summary 556 23.4 Sample Problems Using Critical Movement Analysis 556 23.4.1 Sample Problem 1: A Relatively Simple Problem 556 23.4.2 Sample Problem 2: Example with Compound Phasing 564 23.5 Closing Comments 568 References 568 Problems 569 24 Analysis of Signalized Intersections 571 24.1 Introduction 571 24.2 Conceptual Framework for the HCM 2010 Methodology 572 24.2.1 The Critical-Lane Group Concept 572 24.2.2 The v/s Ratio as a Measure of Demand 573 24.2.3 Capacity and Saturation Flow Rate Concepts 573 24.2.4 Level-of-Service Concepts and Criteria 575 24.2.5 Effective Green Times and Lost Times 576 24.3 The Basic Model 577 24.3.1 Model Structure 577 24.3.2 Analysis Time Periods 577 24.3.3 Input 579 24.3.4 Movement Groups, Lane Groups, and Demand Volume Adjustment 583 24.3.5 Estimating the Saturation Flow Rate for Each Lane Group 583 24.3.6 Determine Lane Group Capacities and v/c Ratios 589 24.3.7 Estimating Delay and Level of Service 591 24.3.8 Interpreting the Results of Signalized Intersection Analysis 595 24.4 A "Simple" Sample Problem 596 24.4.1 Input 597 24.4.2 Volume Adjustment 597 24.4.3 Saturation Flow Rate Estimation 597 24.4.4 Capacity Analysis 598 24.4.5 Delay Estimation and Level of Service 599 24.4.6 Analysis 601 24.4.7 What If There Is a d3? 601 24.5 Complexities 603 24.5.1 Permitted Left Turns 603 24.5.2 Modeling Compound Phasing 606 24.5.3 Altering Signal Timings Based on v/s Ratios 606 24.5.4 Analysis of Actuated Signals 608 24.6 Calibration Issues 608 24.6.1 Measuring Prevailing Saturation Flow Rates 609 24.6.2 Measuring Base Saturation Flow Rates 609 24.6.3 Measuring Startup Lost Time 609 24.6.4 An Example of Measuring Saturation Flow Rates and Startup Lost Times 609 24.6.5 Calibrating Adjustment Factors 611 24.6.6 Normalizing Signalized Intersection Analysis 612 24.7 Summary 613 References 613 Problems 613 25 Intelligent Transportation Systems in Support of Traffic Management and Control 618 25.1 ITS Standards 619 25.2 National ITS Architecture 620 25.3 ITS Organizations and Sources of Information 620 25.4 ITS-Related Commercial Routing and Delivery 621 25.5 Sensing Traffic by Virtual and Other Detectors 621 25.6 Traffic Control in an ITS Environment 622 25.7 How Fast Is Fast Enough? 627 25.8 Emerging Issues 628 25.9 Summary 629 Problems 629 26 Signal Coordination for Arterials and Networks: Undersaturated Conditions 630 26.1 Basic Principles of Signal Coordination 630 26.1.1 A Key Requirement: Common Cycle Length 630 26.1.2 The Time-Space Diagram and Ideal Offsets 630 26.2 Signal Progression on One-Way Streets 632 26.2.1 Determining Ideal Offsets 632 26.2.2 Potential Problems 634 26.3 Bandwidth Concepts 634 26.3.1 Bandwidth Efficiency 635 26.3.2 Bandwidth Capacity 635 26.4 The Effect of Queued Vehicles at Signals 636 26.5 Signal Progression for Two-Way Streets and Networks 638 26.5.1 Offsets on a Two-Way Street 639 26.5.2 Network Closure 640 26.5.3 Finding Compromise Solutions 642 26.6 Common Types of Progression 644 26.6.1 Progression Terminology 644 26.6.2 The Alternate Progression 645 26.6.3 The Double-Alternating Progression 646 26.6.4 The Simultaneous Progression 646 26.6.5 Insights from the Importance of Signal Spacing and Cycle Length 647 26.7 Software for Doing Signal Progression 648 26.7.1 Bandwidth-Based Solutions 649 26.7.2 Synchro 652 26.8 Closing Comments 654 References 655 Problems 656 27 Signal Coordination for Arterials and Networks: Oversaturated Conditions 661 27.1 System Objectives for Oversaturated Conditions 661 27.2 Root Causes of Congestion and Oversaturation 662 27.3 Overall Approaches to Address Oversaturation 663 27.4 Classification 664 27.5 Metering Plans 665 27.6 Signal Remedies 667 27.6.1 Responsive/Adaptive Phase Duration Changes 667 27.6.2 Shorter Cycle Lengths 667 27.6.3 Equity Offsets 668 27.6.4 Imbalanced Split 669 27.6.5 Phase Reservice 671 27.6.6 Pedestrian Minima Provided Only Upon Request 671 27.7 Variations in Demand and Capacity 671 27.7.1 An Illustration of the Effects of Demand and Capacity Variability on Delay 672 27.7.2 Practical Implications 672 27.7.3 A Closing Note on This Topic 674 27.8 Summary and Further Readings 674 References 675 28 Analysis of Streets in a Multimodal Context 676 28.1 Arterial Planning Issues and Approaches 676 28.2 Multimodal Performance Assessment 677 28.2.1 Bicycle Level of Service 678 28.2.2 Pedestrian Level of Service 679 28.2.3 Bus Level of Service 679 28.2.4 Automobile Level of Service 679 28.2.5 Florida Quality/Level of Service Handbook 681 28.3 Summary 681 References 682 Problems 682 29 Planning, Design, and Operation of Streets and Arterials 684 29.1 Kramer's Concept of an Ideal Suburban Arterial 685 29.2 Principles Guiding Local Streets 686 29.3 Access Management 686 29.3.1 Primary Operations Measures in Access Management 686 29.3.2 Proper Median Treatments 687 29.3.3 Control Number, Placement, and Design of Driveways 687 29.3.4 Separation of Functions 689 29.4 Balanced Streets and Complete Streets 689 29.5 Traffic Calming 692 29.5.1 Overview 692 29.5.2 Illustrative Techniques 692 29.5.3 Impacts and Effectiveness of Traffic Calming Measures 695 29.6 Roundabouts 696 29.7 Network Issues 696 29.7.1 One-Way Street Systems 696 29.7.2 Special Use Lanes 698 29.8 Special Cases 699 29.8.1 Transitions from One Signal Plan to Another 700 29.8.2 Coordinating Multiphase Signals 700 29.8.3 Multiple and Sub-Multiple Cycle Lengths 701 29.8.4 The Diamond Interchange 702 29.9 Summary 704 References 704 Problems 705 30 Traffic Impact Analysis 706 30.1 Scope of This Chapter 707 30.2 An Overview of the Process 707 30.3 Tools, Methods, and Metrics 710 30.4 Case Study 1: Driveway Location 712 30.5 Case Study 2: Most Segments of a Traffic Impact Analysis 713 30.5.1 The Project Area and the Existing Condition 713 30.5.2 Proposed Use(s) of the Two Site(s) 715 30.5.3 Local Code & Local Ordinance Requirements 718 30.5.4 Other Given Conditions 718 30.5.5 Element 1: System Cycle 720 30.5.6 Element 2: The Developer's Favorite Access Plan 720 30.5.7 Element 3: Existing Conditions, Capacity, and LOS Analyses 721 30.5.8 Element 4: Trip Generation 722 30.5.9 Element 5: Determine the Size of the Development, Trips Generated, and Internal Circulation 723 30.5.10 Element 6: Driveway Locations and Special Arterial and Intersection Design Features 723 30.5.11 Element 7: Mitigation Measures 723 30.5.12 Element 8: Final Report and Presentation 724 30.6 Summary 724 References 724 Problems 724 Index 726

Portrait

Dr. Roger P. Roess is Department Head in the Department of Civil Engineering at Polytechnic Institute of NYU.
Elena S. Prassas is an Associate Professor in the Department of Civil Engineering at Polytechnic Institute of NYU. She earned her Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Science from Polytechnic University, and her Bachelor of Arts from the State University of New York, Oneonta. She is a Member of TRB's Highway Capacity and Quality of Service Committee (HCQSC), the Chair of the HCQSC Signalized Intersection Subcommittee, and a Member of both the ITE and WTS.
William R. McShane is the Vice President of Operations and Dean of Engineering at Polytechnic University. He earned his B.S.E.E from Manhattan College and his M.S. and Ph.D. In Systems Engineering from Polytechnic University. His areas of interest include quality control, controls and simulation, and engineering economics.
EAN: 9780136135739
ISBN: 0136135730
Untertitel: Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: PRENTICE HALL
Erscheinungsdatum: Juni 2010
Seitenanzahl: 734 Seiten
Format: gebunden
Es gibt zu diesem Artikel noch keine Bewertungen.Kundenbewertung schreiben