EBOOK

Marijuana and the Cannabinoids


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November 2010

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

Although primarily used today as one of the most prevalent illicit leisure drugs, the use of Cannabis sativa L., commonly referred to as marijuana, for medicinal purposes has been reported for more than 5000 years. Marijuana use has been shown to create numerous health problems, and, consequently, the expanding use beyond medical purposes into recreational use (abuse) resulted in control of the drug through international treaties. Much research has been carried out over the past few decades following the identification of the chemical structure of THC in 1964. The purpose of Marijuana and the Cannabinoids is to present in a single volume the comprehensive knowledge and experience of renowned researchers and scientists. Each chapter is written independently by an expert in his/her field of endeavor, ranging from the botany, the constituents, the chemistry and pharmacokinetics, the effects and consequences of illicit use on the human body, to the therapeutic potential of the cannabinoids.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Chapter 1. Cannabis and Natural Cannabis Medicines
David P. Watson and Robert C. Clarke
Introduction
Life Cycle and Ecology
Field Crop Production
Glasshouse and Grow Room Production
Resin Gland Anatomy and Development
Cannabinoid and Terpenoid Biosynthesis
Medical Values of Terpenes
Cannabis' Origin, Domestication and Dispersal
The Cannabis Species Debate
Drug Cannabis Breeding
The Introduction of "Indica"
Advances in Medical Cannabis Research
The Future of Medical Cannabis
Conclusion
References
Chapter 2. Chemistry and Analysis of Phytocannabinoids and Other Cannabis Constituents
Rudolf Brenneisen
Chemistry of Phytocannabinoids and Non-Cannabinoid-Type Constituents
Phytocannabinoids
Introduction
Chemistry
THC Potency Trends
THC in Hemp Seed Products
Non-cannabinoid-type Constituents
Terpenoids
Hydrocarbons
Nitrogen-containing Compounds
Carbohydrates
Flavonoids
Fatty Acids
Non-cannabinoid Phenols
Simple Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Acids, Esters, Lactones
Other
Pharmacological Characteristics of Cannabinoids and Other Cannabis
Constituents
Analysis of Phytocannabinoids
Microscopy
Color Reactions
Chromatographic Techniques
Thin-layer Chromatography
Gas Chromatography, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Other Techniques
DNA testing
References
Chapter 3. Chemical Fingerprinting as a Means of Source Identification
Mahmoud A. ElSohly, Donald F. Stanford, and Timothy P. Murphy
Introduction
Chemometrics
Chemical Constituents of Cannabis
Experimental Design
Methodology
Extraction
GC/MS Analysis
Multivariate Data Analysis
Results of Phase II Study
Similarities Within the Model
Identification of Unknowns
Indoor Vs. Outdoor
Daughter Plants Grown in a Different Region
Age and Sex
Storage Conditions
Hashish
"Silver Bullet" Theory
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Chapter 4. Marijuana Smoke Condensate: Chemistry and Pharmacology
Hala N. ElSohly and Mahmoud A. ElSohly
Introduction
Preparation
Production of Smoke Condensate
Fractionation and Analysis of Marijuana Smoke Condensate
Pharmacological and Toxicological Activities
Behavioral Activity
Mutagenicity
Pulmonary Hazards
Interaction with Estrogen Receptor
Inhibition of Dihydrotestosterone Binding to the Androgen Receptor
References
Chapter 5. Pharmacology of Cannabinoids
Lionel P. Raymon and H. Chip Walls
Introduction
Endogenous Ligands
Cannabinoid Receptors
Effects of Cannabinoids on Motor Coordination
Cortical Areas
Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum
Effects of Cannabinoids on the Limbic System
Hippocampus and Memory Impairment
Amygdala and Behavioral Effects
Hypothalamus and Neuroendocrine Effects
Cannabinoids and Analgesia
Cannabinoids and Addiction
Cannabinoids and Cardiovascular Effects
Cannabinoids and Immunomodulation
Conclusions
References
Chapter 6. The Endocannabinoid System and the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids
Billy R. Martin
Introduction
Endocannabinoid System
Appetite
Emesis
Pain
Drug Dependence
Summary
References
Chapter 7. Immunoassays for the Detection of Cannabis Abuse: Technologies, Development Strategies, and Multi-Level Applications
Jane Tsai
Introduction
Commonly-Used Immunoassays for Drugs of Abuse Screening
Homogeneous Competitive Immunoassays
Heterogeneous Competitive Immunoassays
Point-of-Collection Drug Immunoassays
Cannabinoids Immunoassays
Cannabinoid Test System
Cannabinoids: Pharmacokinetics of and Drug Analysis
Immunogen Strategies for Antibody Generation
Regulations and Guidelines
Comparitive Evaluation of Cannabinoids Immunoassays
General Evaluations
Cutoff Concentrations and Immunoassay Evaluations
Correlation of Results from Cannabinoid Immunoassay and GC/MS Analysis
Stability of Cannabinoids in Biological Matrices
Hemp Seed/Oil Products, Synthetic THC Medication, and Drug Testing
Cannabinoid-to-Creatinine Ratio Studies
Specimen Validity Testing
Conclusions
References
Chapter 8. Mass Spectrometric Methods for Determination of Cannabinoids Physiological Specimens
Rodger L. Foltz
Introduction
Determination of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCA) in Urine
Determination of Other Cannabinoids in Urine
Determination of Cannabinoids in Blood or Plasma
Determination of Cannabinoids in Adipose Tissue and Other Tissues
Determination of Cannabinoids in Meconium
Determination of Cannabinoids in Oral Fluids
Determination of Cannabinoids in Hair
References
Chapter 9. Human Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics and Interpretation of Cannabinoid Concentrations in Biological Fluids and Tissues
Marilyn A. Huestis and Michael L. Smith
Introduction
Cannabis Potency
Absorption
Distribution
Metabolism
Elimination
Interpretation of Body Fluid and Hair Concentrations
Plasma
Urine
Oral Fluid
Sweat
Hair
Final Thoughts
Acknowledgement
References
Chapter 10. Medical and Health Consequences of Marijuana
Jag H. Khalsa
Introduction
Immune System Effects
Cardio-Pulmonary/Cardio-Respiratory Effects
Heptic and Renal Consequences
Endocrine Effects
Birth and Later Developmental Outcomes
Effects of the Brain: Cognitive, Psychological and Mental Consequences
Marijuana Dependence
Genetic Effects
Marijuana and Health
Marijuana and Cancer
Marijuana and Highway Accidents
Summary
References
Chapter 11. Effects of Marijuana on the Lung and Immune Defenses
Donald P. Tashkin and Michael D. Roth
Introduction
Acute Effects of Marijuana on Airway Physiology
Effects of Habitual Marijuana Exposure on the Lung
Animal Studies
Human Studies
Older Studies on the Effects of Cannabis on Respiratory Disorders and Lung Function
Newer Studies on the Pulmonary Consequences of Marijuana Use
Respiratory Symptoms
Lung Function
Effects on Airway Injury and Bronchial Epithelial Pathology
Effects on Alveolar Macrophages
Potential Effects of Marijuana on Respiratory Carcinogenesis
Effects of Marijuana and THC on Immune Defenses
Cannabinoid Receptors on Peripheral Blood Leukocytes
THC Alters Cytokine Balance and Suppresses Host Immunity in Animal Models
Impact of THC on Human Immune Responses and T Cell Activation
Immunologic Suppression of Alveolar Macrophages (AM) in the Lungs of Habitual Marijuana Smokers
Summary
Acknowledgements
References
Chapter 12. Marijuana and Driving Impairment
Barry K. Logan
Effects of Marijuana
Getting "High"
Physiological Effects
Cognitive and Psychomotor Effects
Hallucinations
Other Adverse Reactions
Discussion
Evidence of Marijuana Intoxication
Diagnosis of Marijuana Use - Physiological and Psychomotor Effects
Toxicological Effects
Toxicological Evidence - Urine
Toxicological Evidence - Blood
THC and THC-COOH Concentrations
THC/THC-COOH Ratio
Toxicological Evidence - Oral Fluid (Saliva)
Summary
Epidemiology of Marijuana and Driving
Assessment of Relative Crash Risk Following Marijuana Use
Marijuana and On-Road Driving Studies
Conclusions
General Reading
References
Chapter 13. Postmortem Considerations
Steven B. Karch
Introduction
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodnamics
Cardiovascular Effects
Other Medical Effects
Postmortem Measurements
Cause of Death Determination
References
Chapter 14. Cannabinoid Effects on Biopsychological, Neuropsychiatric and Neurological Processes
Richard E. Musty
Introduction
Hunger and Appetite
Appetite Suppression
Rio-North America Findings
A Good Safety and Tolerability Profile
Rimonabant and the EC System
Pain
Human Studies
Various Potential for Natural Cannabinoids
Psychological Disorders
Anxiety
Depression
Bipolar Disorder
Schizophrenia
Animal Studies
Human Studies
Alcohol Dependence
References

Pressestimmen

From the reviews:
"This book is an excellent reference and essential reading for all toxicologists, drug chemists, and researchers working in the field of marijuana: medical doctors who are prescribing or thinking of prescribing cannabinoids; and police officers who are giving expert testimony on marijuana in court." -Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal
"This book summarizes the information available from research ... on the chemical constituents of cannabis. Both physiological effects of illicit drug use and medical aspects are covered in 14 chapters by different authors. ... The technical aspects are addressed to individuals pursuing research in these areas. ... Each chapter is well referenced. ... chapters are well written and organized and the book fulfills the purpose of bringing the reader up to date on current research on cannabis and the uses of marijuana as a drug." (Stata Norton, Doody's Review Service, March, 2007)
EAN: 9781617375811
ISBN: 1617375810
Untertitel: Softcover of Or. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Erscheinungsdatum: November 2010
Seitenanzahl: 322 Seiten
Format: kartoniert
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