Developmental Biology of Flowering Plants

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Dezember 1999



The study of plant development using molecular and genetic techniques is rapidly becoming one of the most active areas of research on flowering plants. The aim of this book is to present a sense of the accomplishments of the past and of the outstanding problems of the future in the study of plant development. An important feature of this book is the integration of results from molecular and genetic studies on various aspects of plant development in a cellular and physiological context. Of particular interest to readers will be the clear treatment of each landmark stage in the life cycle of plants such as seed germination, seedling growth, flowering, gametogenesis, pollen-pistil interactions, embryogenesis, fruit ripening, and seed and bud dormancy. The book also considers the development of individual plant organs such as the shoot, leaf, root and flowers as well as alternate developmental strategies of plants.


1. Introduction to Plant Developmental Biology.- General References.- 1 Seed to Seedling.- 2. Seed Germination.- 1. Nucleic Acid Metabolism.- DNA Synthesis.- RNA and Protein Synthesis.- Long-Lived mRNA.- 2. Protein Metabolism.- Use of Stored mRNAs for Protein Synthesis.- Newly Synthesized mRNAs and Proteins.- 3. Mobilization of Stored Food Reserves.- Regulation of ?-Amylase Genes by Gibberellic Acid.- Final Phases of Endosperm Dissolution.- Interaction of Gibberellic Acid and Abscisic Acid.- 4. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.- 3. Seedling Growth.- 1. Tropisms.- Gravitropism.- Phototropism.- Thigmotropism.- 2. Photomorphogenesis of the Seedling.- Hypocotyl and Internode Growth.- Regulation of Photomorphogenesis.- 3. Hormonal Control of Seedling Growth.- Auxins.- Ethylene.- Gibberellins.- Cytokinins, Abscisic Acid, and Brassinosteroids.- Apical Dominance.- 4. Gene Expression During Seedling Growth.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.- 2 Seedling to the Adult Plant.- 4. Growth and Differentiation of the Shoot.- 1. Organization of the Shoot Apex.- Cytological and Molecular Analysis of the Shoot Apical Meristem.- Autonomy of the Meristem.- 2. Regulation of Cell Fate in the Meristem.- 3. Tissue Differentiation in the Shoot.- Vascular Tissue Differentiation in the Shoot Apex.- Xylem Regeneration in Stem Internodes, Calluses, and Isolated Cells.- Phloem Differentiation.- 4. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.- 5. Leaf Growth and Differentiation.- 1. Leaf Determination and Development.- Determination of Leaf Primordia.- Postinitiation Development of Leaves.- 2. Evolution of Leaf Form.- Heteroblasty.- Heterophylly.- 3. Differentiation of Leaf Cells.- Epidermis.- Mesophyll.- 4. Senescence and Abscission of Leaves.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.- 6. Root Growth and Development.- 1. The Root Apical Meristem.- Autonomy of the Root Apical Meristem.- Pattern Formation in the Root Meristem.- Cell Division, Cell Expansion, and Cell Elongation in the Root Meristem.- 2. Differentiation of the Root.- Vascular Tissue Differentiation.- Root Hair Formation.- Lateral Root Initiation.- 3. Regulation of Root Growth.- 4. Root-Microbe Interactions.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.- 3 Reproduction.- 7. Floral Evocation and Development of the Floral Meristem.- 1. Acquisition of the Competence to Flower.- Control of Floral Meristem Identity.- Floral Evocation in Differentiated Cells.- 2. Physiology of Floral Evocation.- Photoperiodic Control of Flowering.- Temperature Control of Flowering.- 3. Molecular Control of Floral Evocation.- Cellular Changes During Evocation.- Isolation of Genes Involved in Flowering.- 4. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.- 8. Formation of Floral Organs.- 1. Determination of Floral Organs.- Genetics of Floral Organ Determination.- Organ Determination in Unisexual Flowers.- Floral-Organ-Specific Polypeptides.- 2. Homeotic Mutants.- Manipulation of Floral Organ Differentiation in Arabidopsis.- Homeotic Mutations in Antirrhinum and Other Plants.- Cloning and Characterization of Floral-Organ-Identity Genes.- 3. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.- 9. Microsporogenesis and Formation of the Male Gametophyte.- 1. Anther Differentiation.- Tapetum.- Microsporogenesis.- 2. Pollen Development and Maturation.- The First Pollen Mitosis.- Gene Expression During Pollen Development.- Male Sterility and Pollen Abortion.- 3. Male Gametogenesis.- Division of the Generative Cell and Formation of the Male Germ Unit.- Pollen Germination.- Structure and Growth of the Pollen Tube.- 4. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.- 10. Megasporogenesis and Formation of the Embryo Sac.- 1. Ovule Determination and Development.- 2. Megasporogenesis.- 3. Organization of the Embryo Sac.- Structure of the Embryo Sac Cells.- Gene Function During Megagametogenesis.- 4. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.- 11. Pollen-Pistil Interactions and Fertilization.- 1. Pollen-Stigma Interactions and Pollen Tube Guidance.- Pollen Recognition by the Stigma.- Pollen Tube Traffic in the Style.- The Final Push: Guidance of Pollen Tubes to the Ovules.- 2. Self-Incompatibility.- Structural and Biochemical Aspects.- Molecular Aspects of Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility.- Molecular Aspects of Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility.- 3. Double Fertilization.- 4. In Vitro Fertilization.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.- 4 Seed and Fruit Formation.- 12. Endosperm Development and Embryogenesis.- 1. Endosperm.- 2. Embryo.- Becoming Multicellular.- Ultrastructural and Nuclear Cytology.- Cell Lineage During Late Embryo Development.- 3. Nutrition and Growth of Embryos.- Heterotrophic Nutrition.- Embryo Culture.- 4. Gene Action During Embryogenesis.- Changes in Gene Expression Programs.- Embryo-Defective Mutants.- Embryo-Pattern Mutants.- 5. Storage Proteins of the Endosperm and the Embryo.- Endosperm Storage Proteins.- Embryo Storage Proteins.- Storage Protein Gene Expression in Transgenic Systems.- 6. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.- 13. Fruit Growth and Ripening.- 1. Fruit Growth.- 2. Fruit Ripening.- Biochemistry of Ripening.- Molecular Biology of Ripening.- 3. Role of Ethylene in Fruit Ripening.- 4. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.- 14. Dormancy of Seeds and Buds.- 1. Induction of Dormancy in Seeds.- Development of Dormancy.- Role of ABA in Seed Desiccation and Dormancy.- Gene Expression During Dormancy.- 2. Overcoming Seed Dormancy.- After-Ripening of Seeds.- Phytochrome Control.- 3. Bud Dormancy.- 4. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.- 5 Alternative Developmental Strategies.- 15. Embryogenic Development of Somatic Cells and Pollen Grains.- 1. Somatic Embryogenesis.- Role of Secreted Molecules.- Role of Embryonic Proteins.- Genetic and Molecular Dissection of Somatic Embryogenesis.- 2. Pollen Embryogenesis.- Cytology of Pollen Embryogenesis.- Genetics and Molecular Biology of Pollen Embryogenesis.- 3. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.- 16. Abnormal Plant Growth.- 1. Callus Morphogenesis.- 2. Crown Gall Tumors.- Role of the Ti Plasmid.- The Process of T-DNA Transfer.- T-DNA Genes and Tumor Phenotypes.- Mediation of Growth Hormones in Oncogenic Functions.- Crown Gall Teratomas and Tumor Reversal.- 3. Hairy Root Disease.- 4. Summary and Conclusions.- Further Reading.- References.
EAN: 9780387987811
ISBN: 0387987819
Untertitel: 2000. Auflage. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Springer
Erscheinungsdatum: Dezember 1999
Seitenanzahl: 376 Seiten
Format: gebunden
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