EBOOK

Reactive Oxygen Species in Biological Systems: An Interdisciplinary Approach


€ 267,99
 
pdf eBook
Sofort lieferbar (Download)
Mai 2007

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) which include free radicals, peroxides, singlet oxygen, ozone, and nitrogen monoxide and dioxide free radicals, is an area of intense research. This volume covers (1) the destruction of cellular function by ROS resulting in pathological states; (2) the protection by ROS of an organism against invading organisms that cause infections; and (3) the role of ROS in normal physiological processes. Designed for beginning graduate students, this book gives a concise overview of the field.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1;Contributors;6 2;Acknowledgments;12 3;Preface;10 4;Contents;13 5;Part I Introduction;26 5.1;From the Breath of Life to Reactive Oxygen Species;27 5.1.1;1. INTRODUCTION;27 5.1.2;2. PHLOGISTON THEORY;29 5.1.3;3. OXIDATION THEORY;31 5.1.4;4. OXYGEN POISONING;36 5.1.5;5. THE DISCOVERERS OF OXYGEN AND OF OXIDATION;36 5.1.6;6. ACID PRODUCER;39 5.1.7;7. OXYGEN THERAPY;39 5.1.8;8. OZONE;40 5.1.9;9. LOUIS PASTEUR;41 5.1.10;10. PAUL BERT;41 5.1.11;11. LORRAINE SMITH;43 5.1.12;12. PRELUDE TO THE FREE RADICAL THEORY OF OXYGEN POISONING;43 5.1.13;13. ORIGIN OF THE FREE RADICAL THEORY OF OXYGEN POISONING;45 5.1.14;14. ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSES AND THE ROLE OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN NORMAL PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES;48 5.1.15;15. REDOX CONTROL;49 5.1.16;16. SUMMARY;49 5.1.17;17. REFERENCES;51 6;Part II General Biochemistry and Molecular Biology;97 6.1;Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen Species;56 6.1.1;1. INTRODUCTION;56 6.1.2;2. FENTON CHEMISTRY;59 6.1.3;3. THE HYDROXYL RADICAL;60 6.1.4;4. HYDROPEROXYL AND SUPEROXIDE RADICALS;61 6.1.5;5. SINGLET OXYGEN;63 6.1.6;6. ORGANIC PEROXYL RADICALS;66 6.1.6.1;6.1. Unimolecular Decomposition;67 6.1.6.2;6.2. Radical-Radical Reactions;67 6.1.6.3;6.3. Abstraction of Hydrogen Atoms;68 6.1.6.4;6.4. Addition to Double Bonds;69 6.1.6.5;6.5. Electron-Transfer Reactions;70 6.1.6.6;6.6. The Fate of Organic Peroxyl Radicals;72 6.1.7;7. ALKOXYL AND AROXYL RADICALS;72 6.1.8;8. REACTIVE SPECIES INVOLVING NITRIC OXIDE;73 6.1.8.1;8.1. The Autoxidation of Nitric Oxide;73 6.1.8.2;8.2. The Reaction of Nitric Oxide with Superoxide;75 6.1.8.3;8.3. Reactions of Organic Peroxyl Radicals with Nitric Oxide;76 6.1.8.4;8.4. Peroxynitrite;77 6.1.9;9. NITROGEN DIOXIDE;81 6.1.10;10. HYPOCHLOROUS ACID;82 6.1.11;11. THE CARBONATE RADICAL;85 6.1.12;12. CONCLUSION;86 6.1.13;13. REFERENCES;86 6.2;The Steady-State Concentrations of Oxygen Radicals in Mitochondria;98 6.2.1;1. INTRODUCTION;56 6.2.2;2. FENTON CHEMISTRY;59 6.2.3;3. INTERVENTION AND PREVENTION;140 6.2.4;4. METHODS FOR THE
DETECTION OF REDOX-ACTIVE LABILE POOLS OF TRANSITION METALS;143 6.2.5;5. REFERENCES;145 6.3;The Role of Transition Metal Ions in Free Radical-Mediated Damage;124 6.3.1;1. INTRODUCTION;124 6.3.2;2. THE SITE-SPECIFIC MECHANISM OF METAL-MEDIATED PRODUCTION OF FREE RADICALS;126 6.3.3;3. INTERVENTION AND PREVENTION;140 6.3.4;4. METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF REDOX-ACTIVE LABILE POOLS;143 6.3.5;5. REFERENCES;145 6.4;Biochemistry of Redox Signaling in the Activation of Oxidative Stress Genes;153 6.4.1;1. INTRODUCTION;153 6.4.2;2. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE: THE CELLULAR SIGNAL FOR OxyR;155 6.4.3;3. THE CELLULAR SIGNAL FOR SoxR;157 6.4.4;4. OXYGEN: AN INACTIVATING SIGNAL FOR Fnr;162 6.4.5;5. EUKARYOTIC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS IN REDOX SIGNALING;164 6.4.6;6. PERSPECTIVES;167 6.4.7;7. REFERENCES;168 6.5;Regulation of Mammalian Gene Expression by Reactive Oxygen Species;174 6.5.1;1. INTRODUCTION;174 6.5.2;2. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES;175 6.5.3;3. MODULATION OF NUCLEAR GENE EXPRESSION BY OXIDANT STRESS;176 6.5.4;4. MODULATION OF MITOCHONDRIAL GENE EXPRESSION BY OXIDANT STRESS;179 6.5.5;5. MODES OF REGULATION;179 6.5.6;6. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION;181 6.5.7;7. GENE EXPRESSION AND OXIDANT STRESS-RELATED DISEASE;182 6.5.8;8. CONCLUDING REMARKS;184 6.5.9;9. REFERENCES;186 6.6;Inflammatory Regulation of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase;191 6.6.1;1. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES;191 6.6.2;2. ROS AND THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE;192 6.6.3;3. ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE MECHANISMS;192 6.6.4;4. STIMULUS-DEPENDENT REGULATION OF THE SODs;193 6.6.5;5. MnSOD: A POTENT CYTOPROTECTIVE ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME;195 6.6.6;6. MnSOD AND ONCOGENESIS;196 6.6.7;7. MnSOD GENE ABLATION;197 6.6.8;8. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION;197 6.6.9;9. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS CONTROLLING MnSOD GENE EXPRESSION;198 6.6.10;10. MnSOD LEVELS IN INFLAMMATORY MODELS;199 6.6.11;11. REFERENCES;202 6.7;Antioxidant Protection and Oxygen Radical Signaling;206 6.7.1;1. REACTIVE OXYGEN, NITROGEN, IRON, AND COPPER SPECIES;206 6.7.2;2. ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSES: ESSENTIAL BUT INCOMPLETE;217
6.7.3;3. WHY HAVE WE NOT EVOLVED BETTER ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSES? IS THERE A NORMAL PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE FOR OXIDATIVE STRESS?;220 6.7.4;4. HOW IMPORTANT IS REDOX CONTROL OF CELL SIGNALING?;228 6.7.5;5. REFERENCES;229 7;Part III Nitrogen Reactive Species;236 7.1;Nitric Oxide Synthase;237 7.1.1;1. INTRODUCTION;237 7.1.2;2. BIOCHEMISTRY OF NO FORMATION;238 7.1.3;3. ISOFORMS OF NOS;238 7.1.4;4. INHIBITORS OF NOS ACTIVITY;247 7.1.5;5. ASSAYS FOR MEASURING NOS ACTIVITY;250 7.1.6;6. CONCLUSIONS;252 7.1.7;7. REFERENCES;252 7.2;The Chemical Biology of Nitric Oxide;260 7.2.1;1. INTRODUCTION;260 7.2.2;2. DIRECT EFFECTS;263 7.2.3;3. INDIRECT EFFECTS;280 7.2.4;4. THE BIOCHEMICAL TARGETS OF RNOS;286 7.2.5;5. NITROXYL CHEMISTRY;291 7.2.6;6. PERSPECTIVE;295 7.3;Nitroxides as Protectors against Oxidative Stress;307 7.3.1;1. INTRODUCTION;307 7.3.2;2. CHEMISTRY OF NITROXIDES;308 7.3.3;3. NITROXIDE-MEDIATED PROTECTION AGAINST SUPEROXIDE-, HYDROGEN PEROXIDE-, AND ORGANIC HYDROPEROXIDE-INDUCEDCYTOTOXICITY;311 7.3.4;4. NITROXIDE-MEDIATED PROTECTION AGAINST IONIZING RADIATION;315 7.3.5;5. NITROXIDE-MEDIATED PROTECTION AGAINST REDOX-CYCLING CHEMOTHERAPY DRUGS;321 7.3.6;6. NITROXIDE PROTECTION AGAINST MUTAGENIC REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES;324 7.3.7;7. SUMMARY;324 7.3.8;8. REFERENCES;325 8;Part IV Environmental Pro- and Antioxidants;328 8.1;Stratospheric Ozone and Its Effects on the;329 8.1.1;3. UV RADIATION AND THE ATMOSPHERE;332 8.1.2;3.2. Surface UV Radiation;336 8.1.3;2.1. Gas-Phase Chemistry of;350 8.1.4;2.3. Dosimetry Modeling to Estimate the Regional Deposition of in the Lungs of Mammals 2.3.1. Regional Uptake in the Lung;353 8.1.5;5. PROTEIN INDUCTION;361 8.1.6;5.2. Nitrogen Dioxide;362 8.1.7;6.1. Lung Inflammation;362 8.1.8;6.2. Lung Function;363 8.1.9;6.6. Membrane Fluidity;365 8.1.10;6.8. Enzyme Activities;366 8.1.11;7. ROLES OF ANTIOXIDANTS;367 8.1.12;7.2. Nitrogen Dioxide;368 8.1.13;8. SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF 8.1. Hematological Effects;368 8.1.14;9.1. The Physical Perspective;369 8.1.15;9.3.
Nitrogen Dioxide;371 8.1.16;2.1. Dietary/Habitual Intakes;386 8.1.17;3.1.3. Herbicides;496 8.1.18;3.2. Biotic Stresses;497 8.1.19;4.1. Overexpression of Antioxidants;502 8.1.20;1.3. Oxygen-Centered Radicals;512 8.1.21;2. ROS GENERATION BY MAMMALIAN SPERMATOZOA;533 8.1.22;2.2. ROS and Male Infertility;535 8.2;Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide;347 8.2.1;1. INTRODUCTION;347 8.2.2;2. BACKGROUND;350 8.2.3;3. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF TOXIC ACTION;356 8.2.4;4. POSSIBLE MEDIATORS OF TOXICITY;359 8.2.5;5. PROTEIN INDUCTION;361 8.2.6;6. RELATING MECHANISMS TO TOXIC EFFECTS;362 8.2.7;7. ROLES OF ANTIOXIDANTS;367 8.2.8;8. SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF;368 8.2.9;9. SUMMARY;369 8.2.10;10. REFERENCES;373 8.3;Dietary Antioxidants and Nutrition;379 8.3.1;1. INTRODUCTION;379 8.3.2;2. CANCER;386 8.3.3;3. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE;390 8.3.4;4. CONCLUSIONS;396 8.3.5;5 . REFERENCES;396 9;Part V Internal Pro- and Antioxidants;406 9.1;Xanthine Oxidase in Biology and Medicine;407 9.1.1;1. INTRODUCTION;407 9.1.2;2. STRUCTURAL INFORMATION;408 9.1.3;3. XDH-TO-XO CONVERSION;408 9.1.4;4. REGULATION AND GENE EXPRESSION;409 9.1.5;5. INTERACTION WITH NITRIC OXIDE;410 9.1.6;6. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND CELLULAR LOCALIZATION;410 9.1.7;7. CIRCULATING XO;412 9.1.8;8. GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN BINDING AND POTENTIAL RELOCALIZATION OF XO;413 9.1.9;9. PHYSIOLOGIC FUNCTIONS;414 9.1.10;10. PATHOLOGY;417 9.1.11;11. SUMMARY;422 9.1.12;12. REFERENCES;423 9.2;Melatonin Antioxidative Protection by Electron Donation;431 9.2.1;1. THE PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF MELATONIN: ELECTRON DONATION, RADICAL SCAVENGING, AND ANTIOXIDATIVE PROTECTION;431 9.2.2;2. THE EVOLUTION OF ENDOGENOUS ELECTRON DONORS: EVIDENCE FOR THE OXYGEN CONNECTION;436 9.2.3;3. OXYGEN AND OXYGEN-BASED FREE RADICALS: HIGHLY REACTIVE ELECTRON ACCEPTORS;438 9.2.4;4. ONE-ELECTRON TRANSFER REACTIONS: THE MECHANISMS OF RADICAL FORMATION AND REDUCTION;441 9.2.5;5. ELECTRON DONATION: THE MOST POTENT AND VERSATILE ANTIOXIDATIVE PROTECTION AGAINST FREE RADICALS;444 9.2.6;6. ENDOGENOUS ELECTRON DON
ORS: EXTREMELY POTENT HYDROXYL AND PEROXYL RADICAL SCAVENGERS;447 9.2.7;7. PROTECTION AGAINST OXIDATIVE STRESS AND DAMAGE: THE IMPORTANT ROLE OF RADICAL REDUCTION AND REPAIR;450 9.2.8;8. ELECTRON DONATION: POTENT ANTIOXIDATIVE PROTECTION WITHOUT PROOXIDANT SIDE EFFECTS;453 9.2.9;9. MELATONIN: A POTENT ENDOGENOUS ANTIOXIDANT;456 9.2.10;10. REFERENCES;457 9.3;Ubiquinol An Endogenous Lipid-Soluble Antioxidant in Animal Tissues;462 9.3.1;1. INTRODUCTION;462 9.3.2;2. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF UBIQUINOL AGAINST MITOCHONDRIAL LIPID PEROXIDATION, PROTEIN, AND DNA OXIDATION;464 9.3.3;3. ANTIOXIDANT FUNCTION OF UBIQUINOL OUTSIDE MITOCHONDRIA;472 9.3.4;4. UBIQUINONE AND REDOX SIGNALING: FUTURE PERSPECTIVES;479 9.3.5;5. REFERENCES;480 10;Part VI Specific Tissues;487 10.1;Sources and Effects of Reactive Oxygen Species in Plants;488 10.1.1;1. INTRODUCTION;488 10.1.2;2. ROLE OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN NORMAL METABOLISM;489 10.1.3;3. ROLE OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN STRESSED METABOLISM;495 10.1.4;4. THE USE OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS TO STUDY OXIDATIVE STRESS;502 10.1.5;5. CONCLUSIONS;503 10.1.6;6. REFERENCES;504 10.2;The Production and Use of Reactive Oxidants by Phagocytes;509 10.2.1;1. THE OXIDANTS;509 10.2.2;2. THE ENZYMES;518 10.2.3;3. REFERENCES;523 10.3;Production and Effects of Reactive Oxygen Species by Spermatozoa;533 10.3.1;1. INTRODUCTION;533 10.3.2;2. ROS GENERATION BY MAMMALIAN SPERMATOZOA;533 10.3.3;3. CONCLUSIONS;543 10.3.4;4. REFERENCES;544 10.4;Respiratory Burst Oxidase of Fertilization;548 10.4.1;ENVELOPE;548 10.4.2;1. ACTIVATED SEA URCHIN EMBRYOS ASSEMBLE A FERTILIZATION ENVELOPE;548 10.4.3;2. A -STIMULATED NADPH OXIDASE CATALYZES THE RESPIRATORY BURST;549 10.4.4;3. PROTEIN KINASE C ACTIVATES THE RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE;552 10.4.5;4. FERTILIZED OOCYTES LIMIT OXIDATIVE STRESS;553 10.4.6;5. MAMMALIAN FERTILIZATION AND THE RESPIRATORY BURST;555 10.4.7;6. OXIDATIVE REACTIONS OF PHAGOCYTES;555 10.4.8;7. PEROXIDATIVE MECHANISMS OF OOCYTES AND PHAGOCYTES;556 10.4.9;8. REFE
RENCES;558 10.5;Brain Chemiluminescence as an Indicator of Oxidative Stress;561 10.5.1;1. INTRODUCTION;561 10.5.2;2. CHEMILUMINESCENCE MEASUREMENTS;563 10.5.3;3. BRAIN CHEMILUMINESCENCE AND OXIDATIVE STRESS;564 10.5.4;4. DISCUSSION;568 10.5.5;5. REFERENCES;570 10.6;Reactive Oxygen Species and Neuronal Function;572 10.6.1;1. THE BERT EFFECT;572 10.6.2;2. THE REDOX ENVIRONMENT IN THE CNS;573 10.6.3;3. CONSEQUENCES OF OXIDATIVE STRESS;576 10.6.4;4. SUMMARY;587 10.6.5;5. REFERENCES;588 11;Part VII Pathological States and Aging;593 11.1;Oxidative Stress and Parkinsons Disease;594 11.1.1;1. CHARACTERISTICS OF PARKINSONS DISEASE;594 11.1.2;2. DOPAMINERGIC NEUROTOXINS;595 11.1.3;3. OXIDATIVE STRESS AND PARKINSONS DISEASE;600 11.1.4;4. THEORIES ABOUT PARKINSONS DISEASE;602 11.1.5;5. NEW DIRECTIONS IN PARKINSON RESEARCH;604 11.1.6;6. REFERENCES;605 11.2;Alzheimers and Free Radical Oxidative Stress;610 11.2.1;1. INTRODUCTION;610 11.2.2;2. HOW DO FREE RADICALS REACT AND LEAD TO MEMBRANE;611 11.2.3;3. FREE RADICAL OXIDATIVE STRESS: A MODEL FOR;616 11.2.4;5. PREDICTIONS OF AND EVIDENCE FOR THE FREE RADICAL;625 11.2.5;6. FREE RADICAL OXIDATION IN AD BRAIN: WHERE;632 11.2.6;7. REFERENCES;633 11.3;Oxidative Pathology in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis;640 11.3.1;1. CLINICAL INTRODUCTION;640 11.3.2;2. GENETIC ANALYSIS IN FAMILIAL ALS;640 11.3.3;3. SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE AND FAMILIAL ALSTHE FREE RADICAL HYPOTHESIS;641 11.3.4;4. EVIDENCE FOR OXIDATIVE TOXICITY IN ALS;645 11.3.5;5. OVERVIEW OF CELL DEATH IN THE INHERITED MOTOR NEURON DISEASES;650 11.3.6;6. CONCLUSIONS;650 11.3.7;7. REFERENCES;651 11.4;Reactive Oxygen-Mediated Protein Oxidation in Aging and Disease ;657 11.4.1;1. INTRODUCTION;657 11.4.2;2. OXIDATION OF THE POLYPEPTIDE BACKBONE;657 11.4.3;3. PEPTIDE BOND CLEAVAGE;658 11.4.4;4. PROTEINPROTEIN CROSS-LINKAGE;660 11.4.5;5. SIDE CHAIN MODIFICATIONS;660 11.4.6;6. FORMATION OF CARBONYL DERIVATIVES;664 11.4.7;7. PROTEIN CARBONYLS SERVE AS MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS;665 11.4.8;8. MET
AL-CATALYZED SITE-SPECIFIC MODIFICATION OF PROTEINS;666 11.4.9;9. PROTEIN OXIDATION IN AGING;667 11.4.10;10. WHY DO OXIDIZED FORMS OF PROTEIN ACCUMULATE?;669 11.4.11;11. REFERENCES;670 12;Part VIII Conclusion;676 12.1;An Overview of Reactive Oxygen Species;677 12.1.1;1. INTRODUCTION;677 12.1.2;2. SPECIFICITY OF ROS;678 12.1.3;4. TISSUES NORMALLY SUBJECTED TO HIGH OXYGEN TENSIONS;680 12.1.4;5. SOURCES OF ROS IN THE MAMMALIAN ORGANISM;681 12.1.5;6. REPERFUSION INJURY;684 12.1.6;7. MAINTAINING A PROPER BALANCE;684 12.1.7;8. SUMMARY;687 12.1.8;9. REFERENCES;687 13;Index;694


Innenansichten

Technik

Dieses eBook wird im PDF-Format geliefert und ist mit einem Adobe DRM-Kopierschutz versehen. Sie können dieses eBook auf vielen gängigen Endgeräten lesen.

Sie können dieses eBook auf vielen gängigen Endgeräten lesen.

Für welche Geräte?
Sie können das eBook auf allen Lesegeräten, in Apps und in Lesesoftware öffnen, die PDF und Adobe DRM unterstützen:

  • tolino Reader
    Öffnen Sie das eBook nach der automatischen Synchronisation auf dem Reader oder übertragen Sie das eBook auf Ihr tolino Gerät mit einer kostenlosen Software wie beispielsweise Adobe Digital Editions.

  • Sony Reader und andere eBook Reader
    Laden Sie das eBook direkt auf dem Reader im eBook.de-Shop herunter oder übertragen Sie das eBook mit der kostenlosen Software Sony READER FOR PC/Mac oder Adobe Digital Editions auf ein Standard-Lesegeräte mit PDF- und Adobe DRM-Unterstützung.

  • Tablets und Smartphones
    Installieren Sie die eBook.de READER App für Android und iOS oder verwenden Sie eine andere Lese-App für PDF-eBooks mit Adobe DRM.

  • PC und Mac
    Lesen Sie das eBook direkt nach dem Herunterladen über "Jetzt lesen" im Browser, oder mit der kostenlosen Lesesoftware Adobe Digital Editions.

Schalten Sie das eBook mit Ihrer persönlichen Adobe ID auf bis zu sechs Geräten gleichzeitig frei.

Bitte beachten Sie: Dieses eBook ist nicht auf Kindle-Geräten lesbar.

Ihr erstes eBook?
Hier erhalten Sie alle Informationen rund um die digitalen Bücher für Neueinsteiger.

EAN: 9780306468063
Untertitel: Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Springer US
Erscheinungsdatum: Mai 2007
Format: pdf eBook
Kopierschutz: Adobe DRM
Es gibt zu diesem Artikel noch keine Bewertungen.Kundenbewertung schreiben