EBOOK

Case Studies in Modern Drug Discovery and Development


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Juni 2012

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

Using case studies of successful drug discoveries and launches, this book helps master the necessary knowledge of the drug discovery process. It includes pharmacology, drug metabolism, biology, drug development, and clinical studies. The introduction provides an overview of process, principles, and technologies and each chapter contains case studies that focus on one therapeutic target. It also offers stories from patients who have used the drugs covered as a way to illustrate the impact medicinal chemistry has on real life.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

PREFACE xv
CONTRIBUTORS xvii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: DRUG DISCOVERY IN DIFFICULT TIMES 1
Malcolm MacCoss
CHAPTER 2 DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE DPP-4 INHIBITOR JANUVIA(TM) (SITA-GLIPTIN) 10
Emma R. Parmee, Ranabir SinhaRoy, Feng Xu, Jeffrey C. Givand, and Lawrence A. Rosen
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 DPP-4 Inhibition as a Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes: Identification of Key Determinants for Efficacy and Safety 10
2.3 Medicinal Chemistry Program 20
2.4 Synthetic and Manufacturing Routes to Sitagliptin 27
2.5 Drug Product Development 33
2.6 Clinical Studies 36
2.7 Summary 39
References 39
CHAPTER 3 OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL: AN ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR BLOCKER 45
Hiroaki Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki Koike, and Shin-ichiro Miura
3.1 Background 45
3.2 The Discovery of Olmesartan Medoxomil (Benicar) 47
3.3 Characteristics of Olmesartan 53
3.4 Binding Sites of Omlersartan to the AT1 Receptor and Its Inverse Agonoist Activity 56
3.5 Practical Preparation of Olmesartan Medoxomil 58
3.6 Preclinical Studies 58
3.7 Clinical Studies 62
3.8 Conclusion 63
References 64
CHAPTER 4 DISCOVERY OF HETEROCYCLIC PHOSPHONIC ACIDS AS NOVELAMPMIMICS THAT ARE POTENT AND SELECTIVE FRUCTOSE-1,6-BISPHOSPHATASE INHIBITORS AND ELICIT POTENT GLUCOSE-LOWERING EFFECTS IN DIABETIC ANIMALS AND HUMANS 67
Qun Dang and Mark D. Erion
4.1 Introduction 67
4.2 The Discovery of MB06322 69
4.3 Pharmacokinetic Studies of MB06322 82
4.4 Synthetic Routes to MB06322 83
4.5 Clinical Studies of MB06322 83
4.6 Summary 84
References 85
CHAPTER 5 SETTING THE PARADIGM OF TARGETED DRUGS FOR THE TREATMENT OF CANCER: IMATINIB AND NILOTINIB, THERAPIES FOR CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA 88
Paul W. Manley and Jürg Zimmermann
5.1 Introduction 88
5.2 Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) and Early Treatment of the Disease 89
5.3 Imatinib: A Treatment for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) 92
5.4 The Need for New Inhibitorts of BCR-ABL1 and Development of Nilotinib 94
5.5 Conclusion 99
References 100
CHAPTER 6 AMRUBICIN, A COMPLETELY SYNTHETIC 9-AMINOANTHRACYCLINE FOR EXTENSIVE-DISEASE SMALL-CELL LUNG CANCER 103
Mitsuharu Hanada
6.1 Introduction 103
6.2 The Discovery of Amrubicin: The First Completely Synthetic Anthracycline 106
6.3 Toxicological Profile of Amrubicin 107
6.4 DNA Topoisomerase II Inhibition and Apoptosis Induction by Amrubicin 110
6.5 Amrubicin Metabolism: The Discovery of Amrubicinol 113
6.6 Improved Usage of Amrubicin 116
6.7 Clinical Trials 118
6.8 Conclusions 122
References 123
CHAPTER 7 THE DISCOVERY OF DUAL IGF-1R AND IR INHIBITOR FQIT FOR THE TREATMENT OF CANCER 127
Meizhong Jin, Elizabeth Buck, and Mark J. Mulvihill
7.1 Biological Rational for Targeting the IGF-1R/IR Pathway for Anti-Cancer Therapy 127
7.2 Discovery Of OSI-906 128
7.3 OSI-906 Back Up Efforts 131
7.4 The Discovery Of FQIT 131
7.5 In Vitro Profile of FQIT 140
7.6 Pharmacokinetic Properties of FQIT 144
7.7 In Vivo Profile of FQIT 146
7.8 Safety Assessment and Selectivity Profile of FQIT 148
7.9 Summary 150
Acknowledgments 151
References 151
CHAPTER 8 DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF MONTELUKAST (SINGULAIR(r)) 154
Robert N. Young
8.1 Introduction 154
8.2 Drug Development Strategies 158
8.3 LTD4 Antagonist Program 159
8.4 The Discovery of Montelukast (Singulair(r)) 160
8.5 Synthesis of Montelukast 174
8.6 ADME Studies with MK-0476 (Montelukast) 179
8.7 Safety Assessment of Montelukast 180
8.8 Clinical Development of Montelukast 180
8.9 Summary 185
8.9.1 Impact on Society 185
8.9.2 Lessons Learned 186
8.10 Personal Impact 187
References 188
CHAPTER 9 DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF MARAVIROC, A CCR5 ANTAGONIST FOR THE TREATMENT OF HIV INFECTION 196
Patrick Dorr, Blanda Stammen, and Elna van der Ryst
9.1 Background and Rationale 196
9.2 The Discovery of Maraviroc 199
9.3 Preclinical Studies 201
9.4 The Synthesis of Maraviroc 205
9.5 Nonclinical Safety and Toxicity Studies 206
9.6 Clinical Development of Maraviroc 207
9.7 Summary, Future Directions, and Challenges 214
Acknowledgments 217
References 217
CHAPTER 10 DISCOVERY OF ANTIMALARIAL DRUG ARTEMISININ AND BEYOND 227
Weiwei Mao, Yu Zhang, and Ao Zhang
10.1 Introduction: Natural Products in Drug Discovery 227
10.2 Natural Product Drug Discovery in China 227
10.3 Discovery of Artemisinin: Background, Structural Elucidation and Pharmacological Evaluation 228
10.4 The Synthesis of Artemisinin 232
10.5 SAR Studies of Structural Derivatives of Artemisinin: The Discovery of Artemether 238
10.6 Development of Artemether 248
10.7 Conclusion and Perspective 250
Acknowledgment 250
References 251
CHAPTER 11 DISCOVERY AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT OF MK-4965, A POTENT NONNUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITOR 257
Yong-Li Zhong, Thomas J. Tucker, and Jingjun Yin
11.1 Introduction 257
11.2 The Discovery of MK-4965 260
11.3 Preclinical and Clinical Studies of MK-4965 (19) 266
11.4 Summary of Back-Up SAR Studies of MK-4965 Series 266
11.5 Process Development of MK-4965 (19) 267
11.6 Conclusion 290
Acknowledgments 291
References 291
CHAPTER 12 DISCOVERY OF BOCEPREVIR AND NARLAPREVIR: THE FIRST AND SECOND GENERATION OF HCV NS3 PROTEASE INHIBITORS 296
Kevin X. Chen and F. George Njoroge
12.1 Introduction 296
12.2 HCV NS3 Protease Inhibitors 298
12.3 Research Operation Plan and Biological Assays 302
12.4 Discovery of Boceprevir 303
12.5 Profile of Boceprevir 317
12.6 Clinical Development and Approval of Boceprevir 319
12.7 Synthesis of Boceprevir 319
12.8 Discovery of Narlaprevir 322
12.9 Summary 329
References 330
CHAPTER 13 THE DISCOVERYOFSAMSCA (TOLVAPTAN):THEFIRST ORAL NONPEPTIDE VASOPRESSIN RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST 336
Kazumi Kondo and Yoshitaka Yamamura
13.1 Background Information about the Disease 336
13.2 Biological Rational 337
13.3 Lead Generation Strategies: The Discovery of Mozavaptan 338
13.4 Lead Optimization: From Mozavaptan to Tolvaptan 347
13.5 Pharmacological Profiles of Tolvaptan 350
13.6 Drug Development 353
13.7 Summary Focusing on Lessons Learned 356
Acknowledgments 357
References 357
CHAPTER 14 SILODOSIN (URIEF(r), RAPAFLO(r), THRUPAS(r), UROREC(r), SILODIX(TM)): A SELECTIVE alpha1A ADRENOCEPTOR ANTAGONIST FOR THE TREATMENT OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA 360
Masaki Yoshida, Imao Mikoshiba, Katsuyoshi Akiyama, and Junzo Kudoh
14.1 Background Information 360
14.2 The Discovery of Silodosin 362
14.3 Pharmacology of Silodosin 369
14.4 Metabolism of Silodosin 373
14.5 Pharmacokinetics of Silodosin 376
14.6 Toxicology of Silodosin 379
14.7 Clinical Trials 382
14.8 Summary: Key Lessons Learned 388
References 389
CHAPTER 15 RALOXIFENE: A SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATOR (SERM) 392
Jeffrey A. Dodge and Henry U. Bryant
15.1 Introduction: SERMs 392
15.2 The Benzothiophene Scaffold: A New Class of SERMs 394
15.3 Assays for Biological Evaluation of Tissue Selectivity 394
15.4 Benzothiophene Structure Activity 395
15.5 The Synthesis of Raloxifene 401
15.6 SERM Mechanism 402
15.7 Raloxifene Pharmacology 405
15.8 Summary 411
References 411
APPENDIX I SMALL MOLECULE DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM 417
APPENDIX II GLOSSARY 419
APPENDIX III ABBREVIATIONS 432
INDEX 443

Portrait

Xianhai Huang, PhD, is a Principal Scientist at Merck Research Laboratories. Dr. Huang is the inventor or co-inventor on more than forty patents and patent applications. As a mentor in the Schering-Plough chemistry postdoctoral program, Dr. Huang and his group discovered novel synthetic applications of (diacetoxyiodo) benzene and successfully applied the methodology to the total synthesis of psymberin, an antitumor natural product. Robert G. Aslanian, PhD, is an adjunct professor of chemistry at William Paterson University and was formerly a Senior Director of Medicinal Chemistry with the Schering-Plough Research Institute and Merck Research Laboratories. Dr. Aslanian has over twenty-five years of experience in the pharmaceutical industry. He is co-inventor on thirty-eight U.S. patents and coauthor on sixty-seven scientific articles and reviews.

Pressestimmen

"This book will enrich the collection of medicinal chemists or pharmacologists involved in active drug discovery research, as well as students with a passion for pursuing a career in drug discovery." ("Doody's", 22 February 2013) "A well-made glossary is available in the appendix, which defines the dozens of terms that a medicinal chemist will encounter in his/her career. . . This book demonstrates yet again the need for new, better medicines and the reasons for the high cost of drug research. An enjoyable read!." ("ChemMedChem", 1 January 2013)
EAN: 9780470601815
ISBN: 0470601817
Untertitel: Illustrations. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Erscheinungsdatum: Juni 2012
Seitenanzahl: 472 Seiten
Format: gebunden
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