PAMP Signals in Plant Innate Immunity
BeschreibungPlant innate immunity is a potential surveillance system of plants and is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. The immune system is a sleeping system in unstressed healthy plants and is activated on perception of the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP; the pathogen's signature) of invading pathogens. The PAMP alarm/danger signals are perceived by plant pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The plant immune system uses several second messengers to encode information generated by the PAMPs and deliver the information downstream of PRRs to proteins which decode/interpret signals and initiate defense gene expression. This book describes the most fascinating PAMP-PRR signaling complex and signal transduction systems. It also discusses the highly complex networks of signaling pathways involved in transmission of the signals to induce distinctly different defense-related genes to mount offence against pathogens.
Inhaltsverzeichnis1. Introduction1.1Classical PAMPs 1.2 Plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)1.3 Second Messengers in PAMP Signaling1.4 Plant Hormone Signals in Plant Immune Signaling system1.5 War between Host Plants and Pathogens and the Winner is .......?2. PAMP signaling in Plant Innate Immunity2.1 Classical PAMPs as Alarm Signals2.2 Effector-like PAMPs2.3 PAMPs found within Effectors2.4 Toxins acting as PAMPs2.5 PAMP-induced HAMPs (DAMPs/ MIMPs/ PAMP Amplifiers/ Endogenous Elicitors)2.6 Bacterial PAMPs2.7 Fungal PAMPs2.8 Oomycete PAMPs2.9 Viral Elicitors2.10 Host-associated Molecular patterns (HAMPs) as Endogenous Elicitors2. 11 Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs)2.12 Transmembrane Proteins interacting with PRRs in PAMP-PRR Signaling Complex2.13 PAMP triggers increased Transcription of PRR gene and Accumulation of PRR Protein2.14 PAMPs induce Phosphorylation of PRRs 2.15 Negative Regulation of PRR Signaling2.16 Translocation of PRRs from Plasma Membrane to Endocytic Compartments2.17 ERQC (for ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM QUALITY CONTROL) Pathways in Biogenesis of PRRs2.18 N-glycosylation of PRRs2.19 Significance of PRRs in Innate Immunity2.20 PAMPs-induced Early Signaling Events Downstream of PRRs2.21 Different PAMPs and HAMPs may induce Similar Early Signaling Systems2.22 Magnitude and Timing of Expression of early Signaling Systems may vary depending on specific PAMPs2.23 PAMPs may differ in eliciting various Defense Responses2.24 Synergism and Antagonism in Induction of Plant Immune Responses by PAMPs/HAMPs2.25 Amount of PAMP/HAMP determines the Intensity of Expression of Defense Signaling Genes2.26 Amount of PAMP available in the Infection Court may determine the Level of Induction of Immune Responses2.27 PAMPs may trigger Different Signaling Systems 2.28 PAMPs may function Differently in Different Plants2.29 Specificity of PAMPs in triggering Immune Responses in Plants2.30 Role of PAMPs and Effectors in Activation of Plant Innate Immune Responses2.31 Effectors may suppress PAMP-triggered Immunity2.32 PAMP-induced Small RNA-mediated RNA Silencing3. G-proteins as Molecular Switches in Signal Transduction 3.1 G-proteins switch on Plant Innate Immunity Signaling Systems3.2 Heterotrimeric G-protein Signaling3.3 Small G-proteins Signaling3.4 Heterotrimeric G-protein Ga may act Upstream of Small G-protein in Immune Signaling 3.5 Different G-protein subunits in Heterotrimeric G-proteins play Distinct Roles in Plant Innate Immunity3.6 Small G-proteins Activate Plant Innate Immunity3.7 Small G-proteins may be involved in Susceptible Interactions3.8 RAR1-SGT1-HSP90-HSP70 Molecular Chaperone Complex: a Core Modulator of Small G-protein-triggered Plant Innate Immunity3.9 PAMP Signal may convert the G-proteins from their Inactive State to their Active State to trigger Immune Responses3.10 PAMP-activated G-proteins switch on Calcium ion-mediated Immune Signaling System3.11 G-proteins may trigger Efflux of Vacuolar Protons into Cytoplasm to activate pH-dependent Signaling Pathway3.12 G-proteins switch on ROS Signaling System3.13 G-proteins activate Nitric oxide Signaling System3.14 Close relationship between G-proteins and MAPKs in Signal Transduction3.15 G-proteins induce biosynthesis of polyamines which act as second messengers triggering early signaling events3.16 G- proteins modulate Salicylic acid Signaling Pathway3.17 G-proteins trigger Ethylene Signaling Pathway3.18 G-proteins switch on Jasmonate Signaling System3.19 G-proteins switch on Abscisic acid Signaling System3.20 G-proteins may participate in Gibberellic acid Signaling3.21 G-proteins participate in Brassinosteroid Signaling3.22 Interplay between G-proteins and Auxin Signaling Systems3.23 G-proteins Activate Defense-related Enzymes4. Calcium Ion Signaling System: Calcium Signatures and Sensors4.1 Calcium Signature in Plant Immune Signal Transduction System4.2 Upstream Events leading to Activation of Ca2+ - permeable Channels 4.3 Ca2+ Influx Channels in Plant Cell Plasma Membrane4.4 Ca2+ release Channels Involved in Releasing Stored Ca2+ in Vacuole and Endoplasmic Reticulum into cytosol4.5 Ca2+ Efflux from Cytosol to Vacuole and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)4.6 Plasma Membrane H+-ATPases in Ca2+ Signaling4.7 Anion Channels in Ca2+ Influx and Increase in [Ca2+]cyt4.8 K+ channels in Ca2+ Influx4.9 K+/H+ exchange Response in Ca2+ Signaling System 4.10 PAMPs and DAMPs may trigger Calcium Ion Influx/efflux through Different Ca2+ Channels 4.11 Induction of Increases in Concentration, Oscillations and Waves in Cytoplasmic Calcium Ion ([Ca2+]cyt)4.12 Ca2+ Sensors in Ca2+ Signal Transduction4.13 Calmodulins as Ca2+ Sensors4.14 Calmodulin-binding Proteins4.15 Calmodulin-like proteins as Ca2+ Sensors4.16 Calcineurin B- like Proteins as Ca2+ sensors4.17 NADPH Oxidase as Calcium-binding Protein4.18 Ca2+-binding Proteins without EF-Hands4.19 Calcium-dependent Protein kinases as Ca2+ Sensors4.20 Nuclear Free Calcium Ion ([Ca2+]nuc) in Ca2+ Signaling4.21 Downstream Events in Ca2+ Signaling System 4.22 Importance of Calcium Signaling System in Activation of Plant Innate Immunity5. Reactive Oxygen Species and Cognate Redox Signaling System in Plant Innate Immunity5.1 Reactive Oxygen Intermediates Involved in Oxidative burst5.2 Upstream Events in ROS Signaling System5.3 ROS-Scavenging systems may be involved in Fine-tuning Accumulation of ROS5.4 Site of Production of ROS5.5 Biphasic ROS Production5.6 ROS Plays a Central Role in Triggering Immune Responses5.7 Interplay between ROS and Ca2+ Signaling System5.8 Interplay between ROS and NO Signaling Systems5.9 Interplay between ROS and MAPK Signaling Systems 5.10 Interplay between ROS and Salicylic acid Signaling Systems5.11 Interplay between ROS and Ethylene Signaling Systems5.12 Interplay between ROS and Jasmonate Signaling Systems5.13 Interplay between ROS and Abscisic acid (ABA) Signaling Systems5.14 ROS activates Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation Systems 5.15 Function of ROS in Ubiquitin-Proteasome System5.16 ROS may Regulate Expression of Transcription Factors5.17 Redox Signaling System5.18 ROS Signaling System may activate Transcription of Defense Genes5.19 Pathogens may cause Disease by Interfering with ROS Signaling System in Host Plants6. Nitric oxide Signaling System in Plant Innate Immunity6.1 Nitric Oxide as a Component of the Repertoire of Signals involved in Plant Immune Signaling System6.2 PAMP-induced Biosynthesis of NO in Plants6.3 Upstream Events in NO Production6.4 Nitric Oxide-Target Proteins6.5 Interplay between NO and Ca2+ Signaling Systems 6.6 Interplay between NO and ROS Signaling Systems6.7 Role of NO in SA, JA, and Ethylene Signaling Systems6.8 Role of NO in Protein S-Nitrosylation6.9 Role of NO in Protein Nitration6.10 Role of NO in Salicylic acid-regulated Systemic Acquired Resistance7. Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Cascades in Plant Innate Immunity7.1 MAPK Signaling Three-Kinase Modules7.2 MAP Kinases Involved in Plant Immune Responses7.3 MAPK Kinases (MAPKKs) in Plant Immune Responses7.4 MAPKK Kinase EDR1 Modulates SA-JA-ET Signaling 7.5 MAPK Pathways involved in Defense Signal Transduction may be interconnected7.6 14-3-3 Protein Enhances Signaling Ability of MAPKKK in Activating Plant Innate Immune Response7.7 Role of MAPKs in Priming Plants for Augmented Defense Gene Activation 7.8 PAMP Signals Activate MAP kinases7.9 Signals and Signaling Systems Activating MAPK Cascades7.10 MAPKs May Function Downstream of G-proteins, Ca2+, ROS, SA, ABA, and NO Signaling Pathways7.11 Some MAPKs may act Upstream of SA, JA, and ET Signaling Pathways7.12 Some MAP Kinases act Downstream of Phosphoinositide (PI) Signal Transduction Pathway7.13 MAP Kinase Cascades may act either Upstream or Downstream of ROS Signaling System7.14 MAP Kinases Positively or Negatively Regulate SA Signaling System7.15 MAP Kinase Cascades activate JA Signaling System7.16 Some MAP kinase Cascades are involved in Biosynthesis of Ethylene and Ethylene-mediated Signaling Systems7.17 Involvement of MAP Kinase in Crosstalk between SA and JA/ET Signaling Systems7.18 MAPK Phosphatases as Negative Regulators of MAP Kinases7.19 MAP Kinase Cascades Modulate Phosphorylation of Transcription Factors to Trigger Transcription of Defense Genes7.20 MAPKs Regulate Defense Gene Expression by Releasing Transcription Factors in the Nucleus7.21 Role of MAPK Signaling Cascade in Triggering Phytoalexin Biosynthesis8. Phospholipids Signaling System in Plant Innate Immunity8.1 Biosynthesis of Phospholipids-derived Second Messengers8.2 Phospholipids in Ca2+ Signaling System8.3 Phosphatidic acid in G Proteins-mediated Signaling System8.4 Phosphatidic acid in ROS Signaling System8.5 Phospholipids in JA Signaling System8.6 Phospholipid Signaling System in ABA Signaling Network8.7 Phosphatidic acid in Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation System9. Protein Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation in Plant Immune Signaling Systems9.1 Protein Phosphorylation plays Key Roles in Plant Immune Signal Transduction9.2 Protein Phosphorylation is an Early PAMP/Elicitor-Triggered Event9.3 Protein Phosphorylation is carried out by Different Protein Kinases9.4 PAMPs/Elicitors activate Receptor-like Kinases9.5 PAMP/Elicitor Induces Phosphorylation of Calcium-dependent Protein Kinases9.6 PAMP/elicitor Triggers Phosphorylation of MAP Kinases9.7 Role of 14-3-3 Proteins in Protein Phosphorylation9.8 PAMP/Elicitor Triggers Phosphorylation of PEN Proteins9.9 Protein Phosphorylation Involved in Early Defense Signaling Events Triggered by PAMPs/Elicitors9.10 Phosphorylation of Proteins involved in H+ fluxes induced by PAMP/elicitor9.11 Phosphorylation of Proteins involved in ROS Signaling System9.12 Phosphorylation of Proteins Involved in Ethylene-Signaling System9.13 Phosphorylation of Proteins involved in Salicylic acid Signaling System9.14 Protein Phosphorylation in ABA Signaling System9.15 Phosphorylation of Transcription Factors9.16 Phosphorylation Events Induced by MAP Kinases in Various Signaling systems9.17 Dephosphorylation induced by Phosphatases may negatively regulate Innate Immune Responses10. Ubiquitin-Proteasome System-mediated Protein Degradation in Defense Signaling10.1 Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Plants10.2 Ubiquitin-Proteasome in Jasmonate Signaling System10.3 Ubiquitin-Proteasome in Ethylene Signaling System10.4 Ubiquitin-Proteasome in SA Signaling System 10.5 Ubiquitin-Proteasome in R-Gene mediated Early Signaling System10.6 Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) in Plant Immunity10.7 Pathogens may subvert ubiquitin-proteasome system to cause Disease
PortraitProfessor Dr. P. Vidhyasekaran, Ph.D., F.N.A., is the Former Director, Center for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. " I have published more than 400 research papers in almost all International Journals with high impact factor (to be precise- 32 journals). I have published 12 books so far and my book publishers include CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, U.S.A (3 books), Marcel Dekker, New York (1), The Haworth Press, New York (3 books), and Taylor-Francis -CRC Press, USA. My books have received very enthusiastic reviews and second editions, in addition the regional editions, and e-Book format of my books have also appeared. My latest book published by CRC Press as second edition is recommended by American Phytopathological Society (APS) and included in the APS Press Store. I have won several national awards and I am a Fellow of National Academy of Agricultural Sciences and in several other scientific societies. I have served as President of Indian Society of Plant Pathologists. I have served in editorial boards of several journals and also served as Visiting Scientist in USA, Philippines, and Denmark. ZB: selection of books published: * Handbook of Molecular Technologies in Crop Disease Management (The Haworth Press, 2007) * Concise Encyclopedia of Plant Pathology (The Haworth Press, 2004) * Bacterial Disease Resistance in Plants, Molecular Biology and Biotechnological Applications (The Haworth Press, 2002) * Fungal Pathogenesis in Plants and Crops: Molecular Biology and Host Defence Mechanisms, 1st & 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2nd ed. 2007)
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