EBOOK

Principles of Surface Physics


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Juli 2003

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

This comprehensive and innovative text provides an understanding of the geometric and electronic structure of surfaces. It addresses the surfaces of covalent and ionic solids and also metals. The book emphasizes fundamental aspects, such as the principles of surface crystallography and thermodynamics, the forces driving the rearrangement of the atoms, and the relationship between bonding and electronic structure. The book illuminates the relationship between surface orientation, chemistry, energetics, and the resulting properties. The text includes a discussion of elementary excitations at surfaces, their description and measurement. The general physical arguments and methods presented in the book will also allow the reader to analyse novel surfaces and interfaces of new materials. This makes the book an indispensable reference to all those studying growth, surface-molecule interactions, self-assembled structures, property engineering and materials development. TOC:Symmetry.- Thermodynamics.- Bonding and Energetics.- Reconstruction Elements.- Elementary Excitations I: Single Electronic Quasiparticles.- Elementary Excitations II: Pair and Collective Excitations.- Defects.- References.- Index.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1. Symmetry.- 1.1 Model Surfaces.- 1.1.1 Surface Versus Bulk.- 1.1.2 The Surface as a Physical Object.- 1.2 Two-Dimensional Crystals.- 1.2.1 Lattice Planes of Bulk Crystals.- 1.2.2 Oriented Slabs.- 1.2.3 Ideal Surfaces. Planar Point Groups.- 1.2.4 Real Surfaces: Reconstruction and Relaxation.- 1.2.5 Superlattices at Surfaces.- 1.2.6 Wood Notation.- 1.2.7 Symmetry Classification.- 1.3 Reciprocal Space.- 1.3.1 Direct and Reciprocal Lattices.- 1.3.2 Brillouin Zones.- 1.3.3 Projection of 3D Onto 2D Brillouin Zones.- 1.3.4 Symmetry of Points and Lines in Reciprocal Space.- 2. Thermodynamics.- 2.1 Kinetic Processes and Surfaces in Equilibrium.- 2.2 Thermodynamic Relations for Surfaces.- 2.2.1 Thermodynamic Potentials.- 2.2.2 Surface Modification of Thermodynamic Potentials.- 2.2.3 Surface Tension and Surface Stress.- 2.3 Equilibrium Shape of Small Crystals.- 2.3.1 Anisotropy of Surface Energy.- 2.3.2 Absolute Values for Surface Energies.- 2.3.3 Wulff Construction.- 2.4 Surface Energy and Morphology.- 2.4.1 Facetting and Roughening.- 2.4.2 3D Versus 2D Growth.- 2.4.3 Formation of Quantum Dots.- 2.5 Stoichiometry Dependence.- 2.5.1 Thermodynamic Approach.- 2.5.2 Approximations for Surface Energies.- 2.5.3 Chemical Potentials.- 2.5.4 Phase Diagrams.- 2.5.5 Stability of Adsorbates.- 3. Bonding and Energetics.- 3.1 Orbitals and Bonding.- 3.1.1 One-Electron Picture.- 3.1.2 Tight-Binding Approach.- 3.1.3 Atomic Orbitals and Their Interaction.- 3.1.4 Bonding Hybrids.- 3.1.5 Bonds and Bands.- 3.2 Dangling Bonds.- 3.2.1 Formation of Dangling Hybrids.- 3.2.2 Influence on Electronic States.- 3.3 Total Energy and Atomic Forces.- 3.3.1 Basic Approximations.- 3.3.2 Potential Energy Surface and Forces.- 3.3.3 Surface Diffusion.- 3.4 Quantitative Description of Structure and Stability.- 3.4.1 Density Functional Theory.- 3.4.2 Band-Structure and Interaction Contributions.- 3.4.3 Modeling of Surfaces.- 3.5 Bond Breaking: Accompanying Charge Transfers and Atomic Displacements.- 3.5.1 Characteristic Changes in Total Energy.- 3.5.2 Energy Gain Due to Structural and Configurational Changes.- 3.5.3 Energy Gain and Electron Transfer.- 4. Reconstruction Elements.- 4.1 Reconstruction and Bonding.- 4.1.1 Metallic Bonds.- 4.1.2 Strong Ionic Bonds.- 4.1.3 Mixed Covalent and Ionic Bonds.- 4.1.4 Principles of Semiconductor Surface Reconstruction.- 4.1.5 Electron Counting Rules.- 4.2 Chains.- 4.2.1 Zig-Zag Chains of Cations and Anions.- 4.2.2 ?-bonded Chains.- 4.2.3 Seiwatz Chains.- 4.3 Dimers.- 4.3.1 Symmetric Dimers.- 4.3.2 Asymmetric Dimers.- 4.3.3 Heterodimers.- 4.3.4 Bridging Groups.- 4.4 Adatoms and Adclusters.- 4.4.1 Isolated Adatoms.- 4.4.2 Adatoms Accompanied by Rest Atoms.- 4.4.3 Adatoms Combined with Other Reconstruction Elements.- 4.4.4 Trimers.- 4.4.5 Tetramers.- 5. Elementary Excitations I: Single Electronic Quasiparticles.- 5.1 Electrons and Holes.- 5.1.1 Excitation and Quasiparticle Character.- 5.1.2 Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy.- 5.1.3 Photoemission Spectroscopy and Inverse Photoemmission.- 5.1.4 Satellites.- 5.2 Many-Body Effects.- 5.2.1 Quasiparticle Equation.- 5.2.2 Quasiparticle Shifts and Spectral Weights.- 5.2.3 Screening Near Surfaces.- 5.3 Quasiparticle Surface States.- 5.3.1 Surface Barrier.- 5.3.2 Characteristic Energies.- 5.3.3 State Localizaton.- 5.3.4 Quasiparticle Bands and Gaps.- 5.4 Strong Electron Correlation.- 5.4.1 Image States.- 5.4.2 Mott-Hubbard Bands.- 6. Elementary Excitations II: Pair and Collective Excitations.- 6.1 Probing Surfaces by Excitations.- 6.1.1 Optical Spectroscopies.- 6.1.2 Light Propagation in Surfaces.- 6.1.3 Electron Energy Losses.- 6.1.4 Raman Scattering.- 6.2 Electron-Hole Pairs: Excitons.- 6.2.1 Polarization function.- 6.2.2 Two-Particle Hamiltonian.- 6.2.3 Excitons.- 6.2.4 Surface Exciton Bound States.- 6.2.5 Surface-Modified Bulk Excitons.- 6.3 Plasmons.- 6.3.1 Intraband Excitations.- 6.3.2 Plasma Oscillations.- 6.3.3 Surface and Bulk Modes.- 6.4 Phonons.- 6.4.1 Harmonic Lattice Dynamics.- 6.4.2 Surface and Bulk Modes.- 6.4.3 Rayleigh Waves.- 6.4.4 Fuchs-Kliewer Phonons.- 6.4.5 Influence of Relaxation and Reconstruction.- 6.5 Elementary Excitations for Reduced Dimension.- 7. Defects.- 7.1 Realistic and Ideal Surfaces.- 7.2 Point Defects.- 7.2.1 Vacancies.- 7.2.2 Impurities.- 7.2.3 Antisites.- 7.3 Line Defects: Steps.- 7.3.1 Geometry and Notation.- 7.3.2 Steps on Si(100) Surfaces.- 7.3.3 Steps on Si(111) Surfaces.- 7.4 Planar Defects: Stacking Faults.- 7.4.1 Defect, Reconstruction Element or Bulk Property?.- 7.4.2 Si on Si(111)?3?3-B.- References.

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From the reviews:
"This book contains quite exhaustive information and allows the reader to take confidence with the typical concepts of surface science, both from the theoretical and the experimental points of view ... . The attempt to shed light at graduate-student level on such an important and recent topic from a theoretical point of view is extremely positive and is the major value of the book. ... Readers at any levels, from graduate students to more experienced researchers, could gain insight from this book." (Prof. Gianfranco Pacchioni, ChemPhysChem, Vol. 6 (3), 2005)
EAN: 9783540006350
ISBN: 3540006354
Untertitel: 2003. Auflage. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Springer
Erscheinungsdatum: Juli 2003
Seitenanzahl: 356 Seiten
Format: gebunden
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