The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy

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November 2013



The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy presents the technical development of electron microscope. This book examines the mechanical as well as the technical problems arising from the physical properties of the electron.
Organized into 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history of scanning electron microscopy and electron beam microanalysis. This text then explains the applications and capabilities of electron microscopes during the war. Other chapters consider the classical techniques of light microscopy. This book presents as well the schematic outline of the preparation techniques for investigation of nerve cells by electron microscopy. The final chapter deals with the historical account of the beginnings of electron microscopy in Russia.
This book is a valuable resource for scientists, technologists, physicists, electrical engineers, designers, and technicians. Graduate students as well as researcher workers who are interested in the history of electron microscopy will also find this book extremely useful.


1;Front Cover;1 2;The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy;4 3;Copyright Page;5 4;Table of Contents;6 5;CONTRIBUTORS TO SUPPLEMENT 16;12 6;FOREWORD;14 7;PREFACE;18 8;Chapter 1. On the History of Scanning Electron Microscopy, of the Electron Microprobe, and of Early Contributions to Transmission Electron Microscopy;22 8.1;I. Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Microprobe;22 8.2;II. Early Contributions to Transmission Electron Microscopy;32 8.3;III. Conclusion;40 8.4;References;40 9;Chapter 2. Random Recollections of the Early Days;44 9.1;I. How I Came into the Subject;44 9.2;II. These I Met along the Way;54 9.3;III. Aid from America;78 9.4;IV. Final Word;81 9.5;References;81 10;Chapter 3. Early History of Electron Microscopy in Czechoslovakia;84 10.1;I. Introduction;84 10.2;II. Construction of the First Electron Microscope in Czechoslovakia;89 10.3;III. Desk Transmission Electron Microscope BS 242;90 10.4;IV. Production of Electron Microscopes in Czechoslovakia;95 10.5;V. Conclusion;97 10.6;Appendix A: Bibliography of Related Publications;97 10.7;Appendix B: Publications from the Institute of Scientific Instruments of the Czechoslovak Academy of Science in Brno (in Czech);98 10.8;References;100 11;Chapter 4. Personal Reminiscences of Early Days in Electron Microscopy;102 11.1;I. Preamble;102 11.2;II. Beginnings in Britain;103 11.3;III. The Microscope at the Shirley Institute;104 11.4;IV. Inconveniences of Early Electron Microscopes;107 11.5;V. Group Contacts in Britain during the War;108 11.6;VI. Immediate Postwar Conferences in Europe;109 11.7;VII. Specimen Preparation and "The Practice of Electron Microscopy;110 11.8;VIII. Grids;111 11.9;IX. A Problem with Photographic Plates;112 11.10;X. Capabilities and Use of Electron Microscopes during the War;113 11.11;XI. Shadowcasting;115 11.12;XII. Section Cutting;115 11.13;XIII. Replicas and Metallurgy;118 11.14;XIV. Optics of the Electron Microscope;119 11.15;XV. Later Instrumental Developments;120 11.16;XVI. Conclusion;1
21 11.17;References;121 12;Chapter 5. Megavolt Electron Microscopy;124 12.1;I. Introduction;124 12.2;II. Early Developments in Electron Microscopy;126 12.3;III. How I Came to Electron Microscopy;128 12.4;IV. Megavolt Electron Microscopy;136 12.5;V. Applications of HVEM;146 12.6;VI. Resolution and Contrast in Megavolt Electron Microscopy;179 12.7;VII. Future Prospects;182 12.8;References;183 13;Chapter 6. Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Ultramicrotomy: Reminiscences and Reflections;188 13.1;I. Introduction;188 13.2;II. The Nobel Institute for Physics;190 13.3;III. The Diamond Knife;199 13.4;IV. The Venezuelan Institute for Neurology and Brain Research;208 13.5;V. Low-Temperature Electron Microscopy and Ultramicrotomy;222 13.6;VI. Cryo-Electron Microscopy;227 13.7;VII. Reflections and Outlook;237 13.8;References;241 14;Chapter 7. The French Electrostatic Electron Microscope (1941-1952);246 14.1;I. Introduction;246 14.2;II. Electron Optics in Occupied France;251 14.3;III. The Liberation of the North of France and the Transition to Peace;277 14.4;References;290 15;Chapter 8. Recollections from the Early Years: Canada-USA;296 15.1;I. Introduction;296 15.2;II. Initial Work: University of Toronto (1935-1936);298 15.3;III. Kodak Research Laboratories, Rochester, New York (1937 -1941);301 15.4;IV. Massachusetts Institute of Technology;308 15.5;V. Transition from the Early Years;314 15.6;References;317 16;Chapter 9. My Recollection of the Early History of Our Work on Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope;318 16.1;I. Emission Microscope;318 16.2;II. Studies of Specimen Techniques for Electron Microscopy;320 16.3;III. Electron-Microscopic Observations of Ionic Crystals;323 16.4;IV. The Pointed Filament and Its Application;327 16.5;V. Interference and Coherence;330 16.6;References;335 17;Chapter 10. Reminiscences of the Development of Electron Optics and Electron Microscope Instrumentation in Japan;338 17.1;I. Historical Survey of the Early Stages of Electron Microscopy in Ja
pan;338 17.2;II. Lens Aberrations;348 17.3;III. Practical Magnetic Lens Design;362 17.4;IV. Formation of Caustic and Shadow Images;379 17.5;V. Stigmators;388 17.6;VI. Electron Phase Microscope;397 17.7;VII. High-Voltage Electron Microscopes;400 17.8;References;402 18;Chapter 11. Early Electron Microscopy in The Netherlands;408 18.1;Text;408 18.2;References;437 19;Chapter 12. The Industrial Development of the Electron Microscope by the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Company and AEI Limited;438 19.1;I. Introduction;438 19.2;II. Cathode Rays and Electron ImagesGabor and the Ironclad Concentration Coil;439 19.3;III. The First Commercial Electron MicroscopeEMI;441 19.4;IV. Wartime Developments;445 19.5;V. The EM2 Electron Microscope;446 19.6;VI. A Three-Stage Electron MicroscopeEM3;447 19.7;VII. A Simple Electron MicroscopeEM4;448 19.8;VIII. High-Voltage Electron MicroscopyThe EM5;450 19.9;IX. Improving the Resolving PowerEM3A and the Emergence of Electron Holography;451 19.10;X. High-Resolution MicroscopesEM6;457 19.11;XI. The Image Intensifier;458 19.12;XII. The Electron Microscope in Biology;460 19.13;XIII. Very High-Resolution Microscopy;460 19.14;References;461 20;Chapter 13. The Development of the Scanning Electron Microscope;464 20.1;I. Introduction;464 20.2;II. The Initial Aims of the Three Groups;465 20.3;III. The Cambridge Microscope;467 20.4;IV. Uses of the Microscope;483 20.5;References;499 21;Chapter 14. Some Recollections of Electron Microscopy in Britain from 1943 to 1948;504 21.1;Text;504 21.2;References;521 22;Chapter 15. L. L. Marton, 19011979;522 22.1;Text;522 22.2;Bibliographical Appendix: Publications of L. L. Marton;539 22.3;References;544 23;Chapter 16. 1950-1960: A Decade from the Viewpoint of an Applications Laboratory;546 23.1;I. Introduction;546 23.2;II. Experience with Testing a New Microscope;547 23.3;III. A Microscope with Higher Resolving Power;555 23.4;IV. Development and Improvement of Preparation Methods;563 23.5;V. Teaching Duties in a
n Applications Laboratory for Electron Microscopy;572 23.6;VI. Final Remarks;575 23.7;References;577 24;Chapter 17. From the Cathode-Ray Oscillograph to the High-Resolution Electron Microscope;578 24.1;I. Introduction;578 24.2;II. Developments up to the End of World War II;579 24.3;III. Period of Transition;588 24.4;IV. Improvements in the Electron Microscope after 1945;593 24.5;V. Concluding Remarks;602 24.6;References;603 25;Chapter 18. Reminiscences;604 25.1;Text;604 25.2;References;608 26;Chapter 19. Complementary Accounts of the History of Electron Microscopy;610 26.1;Text;610 26.2;Appendix;623 26.3;References;630 27;INDEX.;640


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EAN: 9781483284651
Untertitel: 200:Adobe eBook. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Elsevier Science
Erscheinungsdatum: November 2013
Format: pdf eBook
Kopierschutz: Adobe DRM
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