General Chemistry

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Dezember 2014



"An excellent text, highly recommended." — Choice When it was first published, this first-year chemistry text revolutionized the teaching of chemistry by presenting it in terms of unifying principles instead of as a body of unrelated facts. Those principles included modern theories of atomic and molecular structure, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. In addition, Dr. Pauling attempted to correlate the theories with descriptive chemistry, the observed properties of substances, to introduce the student to the multitude of chemical substances and their properties. In this extensively revised and updated third edition, the Nobel Prize-winning author maintains an excellent balance between theoretical and descriptive material, although the amount of descriptive chemistry has been decreased somewhat, and the presentation of the subject, especially in relation to the nonmetals, has been revised in such a way as to permit greater correlation with the electronic structure of atoms, especially electronegativity. The principles of quantum mechanics are discussed on the basis of the de Broglie wavelength of the electron. The quantized energy levels of a particle in a box are derived by means of a simple assumption about the relation of the de Broglie waves to the walls of the box. No attempt is made to solve the Schrodinger wave equation for other systems, but the wave functions of hydrogen-like electrons are presented and discussed in some detail, and the quantum states for other systems are also covered. Statistical mechanics is introduced before thermodynamics, and the discussion of thermodynamics is based on it. This arrangement reflects the author's belief that beginning students can understand statistical mechanics better than chemical thermodynamics. Aimed at first-year college students who plan to major in chemistry or closely related fields, the book is written in a logical, clear and understandable style. In addition, many excellent figures are included, along with numerous problems and 75 pages of appendixes covering such topics as symmetry of molecules and crystals, hybrid bond orbitals, and magnetic properties of substances.


1 The Nature and Properties of Matter
1-1 Matter and Chemistry
1-2 Mass and Energy
1-3 The International System of Units
1-4 Temperature
1-5 Kinds of Matter
1-6 The Physical Properties of Substances
1-7 The Chemical Properties of Substances
1-8 The Scientific Method
2 The Atomic and Molecular Structure of Matter
2-1 "Hypotheses, Theories, and Laws"
2-2 The Atomic Theory
2-3 Modern Methods of Studying Atoms and Molecules
2-4 The Arrangement of Atoms in a Crystal
2-5 The Description of a Crystal Structure
2-6 Crystal Symmetry; the Crystal Systems
2-7 The Molecular Structure of Matter
3 "The Electron, the Nuclei of Atoms, and the Photon"
3-1 The Nature of Electricity
3-2 The Discovery of the Electron
3-3 The Discovery of of X-rays and Radioactivity
3-4 The Nuclei of Atoms
3-5 The Birth of the Quantum Theory
3-6 The Photoelectric Effect and the Photon
3-7 The Diffraction of X-rays by Crystals
3-8 Electron Wave Character and Electron Spin
3-9 What Is Light? What Is an Electron?
3-10 The Uncertainty Principle
4 Elements and Compounds. Atomic and Molecular Masses
4-1 The Chemical Elements
4-2 The Neutron. The Structure of Nuclei
4-3 Chemical Reactions
4-4 Nuclidic Masses and Atomic Weights
4-5 Avogadro's Number. The Mole
4-6 Examples of Weight-relation Calculations
4-7 Determination of Atomic Weights by Chemical Method
4-8 Determination of Atomic Weights by Use of the Mass Spectrograph
4-9 Determination of Nuclidic Masses by Nuclear Reactions
4-10 The Discovery of the Correct Atomic Weights. Isomorphism
5 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table of the Elements
5-1 The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
5-2 Excitation and Ionization Energies
5-3 The Wave-mechanical Description of Atoms
5-4 The Periodic Table of the Elements
5-5 Electron Energy as the Basis of the Periodic Table
5-6 The History of the Periodic Table
6 The Chemical Bond
6-1 The Nature of Covalence
6-2 The Structure of Covalent Compounds
6-3 The Direction of Valence Bonds in Space
6-4 Tetrahedral Bond Orbitals
6-5 Bond Orbitals with Large p Character
6-6 Molecules and Crystals of the Nonmetallic Elements
6-7 Resonance
6-8 Ionic Valence
6-9 The Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds
6-10 The Electronegativity Scale of the Elements
6-11 Heats of Formation and Relative Electronegativity of Atoms
6-12 The Electroneutrality Principle
6-13 The Sizes of Atoms and Molecules.
Covalent Radii and van der Waals Radii
6-14 Oxidation Numbers of Atoms
7 The Nonmetallic Elements and Some Their Compounds
7-1 The Elementary Substances
7-2 Hydrides of Nonmetals. Hydrocarbons
7-3 Hydrocarbons Containing Double Bonds and Triple Bonds
7-4 Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Benzene
7-5 Amnonia and Its Compounds
7-6 Other Normal-valence Componds of the Nonmetals
7-7 Some Transargononic Single-bonded Compounds
7-8 The Argonons
8 Oxygen Compounds of Nonmetallic Elements
8-1 The Oxycompounds of the Halogens
8-2 "Oxycompounds of Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurim"
8-3 "Oxycompounds of Phosphorus, Arsenic, Antimony, and Bismuth"
8-4 Oxycompounds of Nitrogen
8-5 Oxycompounds of Carbon
8-6 Molecules containing Bivalent Carbon. Free Radicals
8-7 Unstable and Highly Reactive Molecules
9 Gases: Quantum Mechanics and Statistical Mechanics
9-1 The Perfect-gas Equation
9-2 Quantum Mechanics of a Monatomic Gas
9-3 The Wave Equation
9-4 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
9-5 The Distribution Law for Molecular Velocities
9-6 The Boltzmann Distribution Law
9-7 Deviations of Real Gases from Ideal Behavior
10 Chemical Thermodynamics
10-1 Heat and Work. Energy and Enthalpy
10-2 The First Law of Thermodynamics
10-3 "Heat Capacity. Heats of Fusion, Vaporization, and Transition"
10-4 Entropy. The Probable State of an Isolated System
10-5 The Absolute Entropy of a Perfect Gas
10-6 Reversible and Irreversible Changes in State
10-7 The Efficiency of a Heat Engine
10-8 Change in Entropy of Any System with Temperature
10-9 The Third Law of Thermodynamics
10-10 The Heat Capacity of Diatomic Gases
10-11 Quantum States of the Rigid Rotator
10-12 The Rotational Entropy of Diatomic Gases
10-13 Quantum States of the Harmonic Oscillator
10-14 Vibrational States of Diatomic Molecules
10-15 "Energy, Heat Capacity, and Entropy of a Harmonic Oscillator"
10-16 The Quantum Theory of Low-temperature Heat Capacity of Crystals
11 Chemical Equilibrium
11-1 The Thermodynamic Conditon for Chemical Equilibrium
11-2 The Vapor Pressure of a Liquid or Crystal
11-3 "Entropy of Transition, Fusion, and Vaporization"
11-4 Van der Waals Forces. Melting Points and Boiling Points
11-5 Chemical Equilibrium in Gases
11-6 Change of Equilibrium with Temperature
11-7 Equilibrium in Heterogeneous Systems
11-8 Le Chatelier's Principle
11-9 The Phase Rule-a Method of Classifying All Systems in Equilibrium
11-10 The Conditions under Which a Reaction Proceeds to Completion
12 Water
12-1 The Composition of Water
12-2 The Water Molecule
12-3 The Properties of Water
12-4 The Hydrogen Bond-the Cause of the Unusual Properties of Water
12-5 The Entropy of Ice
12-6 The Importance of Water as an Electrolytic Solvent
12-7 Heavy Water
12-8 Deviation of Water and Some Other Liquids from Hildebrand's Rule
12-9 The Dense Forms of Ice
12-10 The Phase Diagram of Water
13 The Properties of Solutions
13-1 Types of Solutions. Nomenclature
13-2 Solubility
13-3 The Dependence of Solubility on the Nature of Solute and Solvent
13-4 Solubility of Salts and Hydroxides
13-5 The Solubility-Product Principle
13-6 The Solubility of Gases in Liquids: Henry's Law
13-7 The Freezing Point and Boiling Point of Solution
13-8 The Vapor Pressure of Solutions: Raoult's Law
13-9 The Osmotic Pressure of Solutions
13-10 The Escaping Tendency and the Chemical Potential
13-11 The Properties of Ionic Solutions
13-12 Colloidal Solutions
14 Acids and Bases
14-1 Hydronium-ion (Hydrogen-ion) Concentration
14-2 The Equilibrium between Hydrogen Ion and Hydroxide Ion in Aqueous Solution
14-3 Indicators
14-4 Equivalent Weights of Acids and Bases
14-5 Week Acids and Bases
14-6 The Titration of Weak Acids and Bases
14-7 Buffered Solutions
14-8 The Strengths of the Oxygen Acids
14-9 The Solution of Carbonates in Acid; Hard Water
14-10 The Precipitation of Sulfides
14-11 Nonaqueous Amphiprotic Solvents
15 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Electrolysis
15-1 The Electrolytic Decomposition of Molten Salts
15-2 The Electrolysis of and Aqueous Salt Solution
15-3 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
15-4 Quantitative Relations in Electrolysis
15-5 The Electromotive-force Series of the Elements
15-6 Equilibrium Constants for Oxidation-Reduction Couples
15-7 The Dependence of the Elctomotive Force of Cells on Concentration
15-8 Primary Cells and Storage Cells
15-9 Electrolytic Production of Elements
15-10 The Reduction of Ores. Metallurgy
16 The Rate of Chemical Reactions
16-1 Factors Influencing the Rate of Reactions
16-2 The Rate of a First-order Reaction at Constant Temperature
16-3 Reactions of Higher Order
16-4 Mechanism of Reactions. Dependence of Reaction Rate on Temperature
16-5 Catalysis
16-6 Kinetics of Enzyme Reactions
16-7 Chain Reactions
17 The Nature of Metals and Alloys
17-1 The Metallic Elements
17-2 The Structure of Metals
17-3 The Nature of the Transition Metals
17-4 The Metallic State
17-5 Metallic Valence
17-6 The Free-electron Theory of Metals
17-7 The Nature of Alloys
17-8 Experimental Methods of Studying Alloys
17-9 Interstitial Solid Solutions and Substitutional Solid Solutions
17-10 Physical Metallurgy
18 "Lithium, Beryllium, Boron, and Silicon and Their Congeners"
18-1 "The Electronic Structures of Lithium, Beryllium, Boron, and Silicon and Their Congeners"
18-2 "Radius Ratio, Ligancy, and the Properties of Substances"
18-3 The Alkali Metals and Their Compounds
18-4 The Alkaline-earth Metals and Their Compounds
18-5 Boron
18-6 "The Boranes, Electron-deficient Substances"
18-7 Aluminum and Its Congeners
18-8 Silicon and Its Simpler Compounds
18-9 Silicon Dioxide
18-10 Sodium Silicate and other Silicates
18-11 The Silicate Minerals
18-12 Glass
18-13 Cement
18-14 The Silicones
18-15 Germanium
18-16 Tin
18-17 Lead
19 Inorganic Complexes and the Chemistry of the Transiton Metals
19-1 The Nature of Inorganic Complexes
19-2 "Tetrahedral, Octahedral, and Square Bond Orbitals"
19-3 Ammonia Complexes
19-4 Cyanide Complexes
19-5 Complex Halides and Other Complex Ions
19-6 Hydroxide Complexes
19-7 Sulfide Complexes
19-8 The Quantitive Treatment of Complex Formation
19-9 Polydentate Complexing Agents
19-10 The Structure and Stability of Carbonyls and Other Covalent Complexes of the Transition Metals
19-11 Polynuclear Complexes
20 "Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, and the Platinum Metals"
20-1 "The Electronic Structures and Oxidation States of Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, and the Platinum Metals"
20-2 Iron
20-3 Steel
20-4 Compounds of Iron
20-5 Cobalt
20-6 Nickel
20-7 The Platinum Metals
21 "Copper, Zinc, and Gallium and Their Congeners"
21-1 "The Electronic Structures and Oxidation States of Copper, Silver, and Gold"
21-2 "The Properties of Copper, Silver, and Gold"
21-3 The Compounds of Copper
21-4 The Compounds of Silver
21-5 Photochemistry and Photography
21-6 The Compounds of Gold
21-7 Color and Mixed Oxidation States
21-8 "The Properties and Uses of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury"
21-9 Compounds of Zinc and Cadmium
21-10 Compounds of Mercury
21-11 "Gallium, Indium, and Thallium"
22 "Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, and Manganese and Their Congeners"
22-1 "The Electronic Structures of Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, and Manganese and Their Congeners"
22-2 "Titanium, Zirconium, Hafnium, and Thorium"
22-3 "Vanadium, Niobium, Tantalum, and Protactinium"
22-4 Superconductivity
22-5 Chromium
22-6 The Congeners of Chromium
22-7 Managanese
22-8 Acid-forming and Base-forming Oxides and Hydroxides
22-9 The Congeners of Manganese
23 Organic Chemistry
23-1 The Nature and Extent of Organic Chemistry
23-2 Petroleum and the Hydrocarbons
23-3 Alcohols and Phenols
23-4 Aldehydes and Ketones
23-5 The Organic Acids and Their Esters
23-6 Amines and Other Organic Compounds of Nitrogen
23-7 "Carbohydrates, Sugars, Polysaccharides"
23-8 Fibers and Plastics
24 Biochemistry
24-1 The Nature of Life
24-2 The Structure of Living Organisms
24-3 Amino Acids and Protiens
24-4 Nucleic Acids. The Chemistry of Heredity
24-5 Metabolic Processes. Enzymes and Their Action
24-6 Vitamins
24-7 Hormones
24-8 Chemistry and Medicine
25 The Chemistry of the Fundamental Particles
25-1 The Classification of the Fundemental Particles
25-2 The Discovery of the Fundemental Particles
25-3 The Forces between Nucleons. Strong Interactions
25-4 The Structure of Nucleons
25-5 Leptons and Antileptons
25-6 Mesons and Antimesons
25-7 Baryons and Antibaryons
25-8 The Decay Reactions of the Fundemental Particles
25-9 Strangeness (Xenicity)
25-10 Resonance Particles and Complexes
25-11 The Structure of the Fundamental Particles. Quarks
25-12 "Positronium, Muonium, Mesonic Atoms"
26 Nuclear Chemistry
26-1 Natural Radioactivity
26-2 The Age of the Earth
26-3 Artificial Radioactivity
26-4 The Kinds of Nuclear Reactions
26-5 The Use of Radioactive Elements as Tracers
26-6 Dating Objects by Use of Carbon
26-7 The Properties of Nucleides
26-8 The Shell Model of Nuclear Structure
26-9 The Helion-Triton Model
26-10 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion
I. Units of Measurement
II. Values of Some Physical and Chemical Constants
III. Symmetry of Molecules and Crystals
IV. X-rays and Crystal Structure
V. Hydrogenlike Orbitals
VI. Russel-Saunders States of Atoms Allowed by the Pauli Exclusion Principle
VII. Hybrid Bond Orbitals
VIII. Bond Energy and Bond-dissociation Energy
IX. The Vapor Pressure of Water
X. An Alternitive Derivation of the Boltzmann Distribution Law
XI. The Boltzmann Dristribution Law in Classical Mechanics
XII. The Entropy of a Perfect Gas
XIII. Electric Polarizabilities and Electric Dipole Moments
XIV. The Magnetic Properties of Substances
XV. Values of Thermodynamic Properties of Some Substances at 25°C and 1 atm
XVI. Selected Readings


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EAN: 9780486134659
Untertitel: ebook Ausgabe. EPUB. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Dover Publications
Erscheinungsdatum: Dezember 2014
Seitenanzahl: 992 Seiten
Format: epub eBook
Kopierschutz: Adobe DRM
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