EBOOK

Recent Advances in Hydraulic Physical Modelling


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April 1989

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

The growing use of mathematical models in hydraulics has not made physical models obsolete. They keep pace with mathematical models and in some cases make progress in conjunction with them Physical models continue to be developed: more precise use of similitude criteria, better knowledge of scale effects, new and more complex types of model,use of various artifices, more ade­ quate instrumentation, automation of the operation of model- all these pOint to that development. What was needed was to make a survey of the situation, and this was the principal aim of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Recent Advances in Hydraulic Physical Modelling, which took place on the premises of the Laborat6rio Nacional de Engenharia Civil (LNEC) in Lisbon, Portugal, from 4th to 15th July 1988, and of which this book is one of the main outputs. It is divided into 11 chapters, corresponding to 28 lectures that cover five areas: fundamentals of physical modelling, river models, hydraulics of structures, maritime hvdraulics and densi ty models. -- Hodelling is obviously dependent on the knowledge of the phe­ nomena that are being modelled. This book is therefore also a book on hydraulic engineering in general and not only on phv­ sical, modelling. The text also refers to mathematical modelling, experimental methods in hydraulics and observation of nature and prototypes.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1 Fundamentals of Hydraulic Physical Modelling.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Principles of the Theory of Dimensions.- 2.1. Dimensional and dimensionless quantities.- 2.2. Characteristic parameters.- 2.3. Dimensionless expression of a natural law.- 3. Principles of the Theory of Similarity.- 3.1. The idea of a model.- 3.2. Definition of dynamic similarity.- 3.3. Dynamically similar models and their scales.- 4. Hydraulic Models.- 4.1. General, conventional models (operating with water).- 4.2. Distortion.- 4.3. Froudian models.- 5. Further Approaches to Hydraulic Model Design.- 5.1. General.- 5.2. Examples.- 5.2.1. Inception of sediment transport.- 5.2.2. OTEC - Power plants (Ref. [9]).- 5.2.3. River flow with bed covered by sand waves.- 2 River Models.- 1. Non Maritime Models with Fixed Bed.- 1.1. Similarity for rivers and open channels.- 1.1.1. Undistorted models.- 1.1.2. Distorted models.- 1.2. Models of hydraulic structures.- 1.2.1. Similarity.- 1.2.2. Examples of hydraulic structures.- 1.2.2.1. Low-head hydraulic structures.- 1.2.2.2. Flood-discharge structures (weirs and spillways).- 1.2.2.3. Internal flow systems.- 1.2.3. Problems connected to air entrainment.- 1.2.3.1. Two-phase flow.- 1.2.3.2. Vortices.- 1.3. Mixing models.- 1.3.1. Turbulent entrainment at the effluent jet.- 1.3.2. Rise of the jet by buoyancy.- 1.3.3. Convective spread over the surface.- 1.3.4. Mass transport.- 1.3.5. Diffusion and dispersion.- 1.3.6. Loss of heat through surface.- 1.4. Models of flows without a free surface.- 1.5. Models of river training schemes.- 1.6. Model techniques.- 1.6.1. Construction.- 1.6.2. Control and operation.- 1.6.3. Calibration.- 1.6.4. Measurement and instrumentation.- 1.6.4.1. Flow velocities.- 1.6.4.2. Water levels.- 1.6.4.3. Water pressures.- 2. Sediment Transport in Rivers.- 2.1. Basic concepts and relevant parameters.- 2.1.1. The granular material.- 2.1.2. The flow: velocity distribution.- 2.1.2.1. Laminar zone y ?.- 2.1.3. Dimensional analysis of the two-phase phenomenon.- 2.2. Beginning of sediment transport - transport rate.- 2.3. Sand waves.- 2.3.1. If the flow is tranquil (Fr 1).- 2.4. Friction factor.- 2.5. Suspended load.- 3. River Models with Movable Bed.- 3.1. Model laws for bedload.- 3.1.1. Models with flat bed.- 3.1.2. Models with sand waves.- 3.1.2.1. Scaling of undistorted models.- 3.1.2.2. Scaling of distorted models.- 3.2. Modelling techniques.- 3.2.1. Construction.- 3.2.2. Choice of movable bed material.- 3.2.3. Calibration of the model.- 3.2.4. Operation and measurement.- 3.3. Case studies.- 3.3.1. The Rhône river near the confluence with the Drôme river.- 3.3.2. The Loire river near Orleans in France.- 3.4. Comparison with other modelling techniques.- 3.4.1. Aerodynamic models.- 3.4.2. Numerical models.- 3 Models for Study of the Dynamic Behaviour of Structures in Flow and Waves.- 1. Introduction in the Held of Hydro-Elasticity.- 2. The Single Resonator in a Flow Field.- 3. Response Calculations at Random Excitation.- 4. Introduction to Added Mass, Added Damping, Added Rigidity and Self-Excitation.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Introduction of added mass, added damping and added rigidity.- 4.3. Self-exciting vibrations of gates.- 4.4. The bathing plug equations.- 4.5. Application of theory to underflow type of gates.- 5. Models with Elastic Similarity for the Investigation of Hydraulic Structures.- 5.1. Hydraulic reproduction laws.- 5.2. Elastic properties of models.- 5.3. Combination for flow without free liquid surface.- 5.4. Combination for flow with free liquid surface.- 5.5. Model research and verification measurement on the Hagestein visor gates.- 5.6. Further application of elastic similarity models.- 6. The Use (Applicability and Limitations) of Physical Models in Vibration Research.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Types of physical models for vibration research.- 6.3. Air models for gate research.- 6.4. General remarks on the reliability of models.- 6.5. Particular scale effects of models with continuo

Innenansichten

EAN: 9780792301967
ISBN: 079230196X
Untertitel: 'NATO Science Series E'. 1989. Auflage. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Springer
Erscheinungsdatum: April 1989
Seitenanzahl: 652 Seiten
Format: gebunden
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