EBOOK

Active Food Packaging


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Dezember 1995

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

Food packaging materials have traditionally been chosen to avoid unwanted interactions with the food. During the past two decades a wide variety of packaging materials have been devised or developed to interact with the food. These packaging materials, which are designed to perform some desired role other than to provide an inert barrier to outside influences, are termed 'active packaging'. The benefits of active packaging are based on both chemical and physical effects. Active packaging concepts have often been presented to the food industry with few supporting results of background research. This manner of introduction has led to substantial uncertainty by potential users because claims have sometimes been based on extrapolation from what little proven information is available. The forms of active packaging have been chosen to respond to various food properties which are often unrelated to one another. For instance many packaging requirements for post harvest horticultural produce are quite different from those for most processed foods. The object of this book is to introduce and consolidate information upon which active packaging concepts are based. Scientists, technologists, students and regulators will find here the basis of those active packaging materials, which are either commercial or proposed. The book should assist the inquirer to understand how other concepts might be applied or where they should be rejected.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1 Overview of active food packaging.- 1.1 Active, intelligent and modified atmosphere packaging.- 1.2 Origins of active packaging.- 1.2.1 Why active packaging.- 1.2.2 Historical development.- 1.3 Literature review.- 1.4 Scope for application of active packaging.- 1.4.1 Do-it-yourself active packaging.- 1.5 Physical and chemical principles applied.- 1.6 Implications for other packaging.- 1.6.1 Whole packages designed to be active.- 1.7 Limitations of current approaches.- 1.8 Future potential.- 1.9 Regulatory considerations.- References.- 2 Ethylene-removing packaging.- 2.1 The chemistry of ethylene.- 2.1.1 Synthesis.- 2.1.2 Degradation.- 2.1.3 Adsorption and absorption.- 2.2 Deleterious effects of ethylene.- 2.2.1 Respiration.- 2.2.2 Fruit ripening and softening.- 2.2.3 Flower and lead abscission.- 2.2.4 Chlorophyll breakdown.- 2.2.5 Petal inrolling in carnations.- 2.2.6 Postharvest disorders.- 2.2.7 Susceptibility to plant pathogens.- 2.3 Interactions of ethylene and other gases.- 2.3.1 Oxygen.- 2.3.2 Carbon dioxide.- 2.3.3 Ozone.- 2.4 Ethylene sources in the environment.- 2.4.1 Combustion.- 2.4.2 Plant sources.- 2.4.3 Ripening rooms.- 2.4.4 Fluorescent ballasts and rubber materials.- 2.4.5 Microorganisms.- 2.5 Commercial applications in packaging.- 2.5.1 Potassium permanganate-based scavengers.- 2.5.2 Activated carbon-based scavengers.- 2.5.3 Activated earth-type scavengers.- 2.5.4 New and novel approaches to ethylene-removing packaging.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 3 Design of modified atmosphere packaging for fresh produce.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Literature review.- 3.3 Feasibility study.- 3.3.1 Optimum conditions.- 3.4 Respiration rates.- 3.4.1 Temperature effect.- 3.5 Measurement of respiration rates.- 3.5.1 Flow-through system.- 3.5.2 Closed system method.- 3.6 Model equations and package requirements.- 3.6.1 Unsteady-state equations.- 3.6.2 Steady-state equations.- 3.7 Polymeric films for MAP applications.- 3.7.1 Perforation and microporous films.- 3.7.2 Temperature compensating films.- 3.7.3 Ceramic-filled films.- 3.8 Concluding remarks.- Nomenclature.- References.- 4 Active packaging in polymer films.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Oxygen scavenging.- 4.2.1 Forms of oxygen-scavenging packaging.- 4.2.2 Plastics packaging as media for oxygen scavenging.- 4.2.3 Brief history of oxygen-scavenging films.- 4.2.4 Chemistry of oxygen scavenging.- 4.2.5 Chemical barrier to oxygen permeation.- 4.3 Moisture control films.- 4.3.1 Liquid water control.- 4.3.2 Humidity buffering.- 4.4 Removal of taints and food constituents.- 4.5 Ingredient release.- 4.5.1 Antioxidant release from plastics.- 4.6 Permeability modification.- 4.7 Current use commercially.- 4.8 Regulatory and environmental impacts.- References.- 5 Edible films and coatings as active layers.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Use of edible active layers to control water vapor transfer.- 5.3 Use of edible active layers to control gas exchange.- 5.4 Modification of surface conditions with edible active layers.- 5.5 Conclusion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 6 Interactive packaging involving sachet technology.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Oxygen absorbents.- 6.2.1 Classification of oxygen absorbents.- 6.2.2 Main types of oxygen absorbents.- 6.2.3 Factors influencing the choice of oxygen absorbents.- 6.2.4 Application of oxygen absorbents for shelf-life extension of food.- 6.2.5 Advantages and disadvantages of oxygen absorbents.- 6.2.6 Effect of oxygen absorbents on aflatoxigenic mold species.- 6.3 Ethanol vapor.- 6.3.1 Ethanol vapor generators.- 6.3.2 Uses of Ethicap for shelf-life extension of food.- 6.3.3 Effect of ethanol vapor on food spoilage/food poisoning bacteria.- 6.3.4 Advantages and disadvantages of ethanol vapor generators.- 6.4 Conclusion.- References.- 7 Enzymes as active packaging agents.- 7.1 Enzymes.- 7.2 Potential roles of enzymes in active packaging.- 7.3 History.- 7.4 Oxygen removal.- 7.5 Antimicrobial effects.- 7.6 Time-temperature integrator-indicators.- 7.7 Lactose removal.- 7.8 Cholesterol removal.- References.- 8 The history of oxygen scavenger bottle closures.- 8.1 Background.- 8.2 Oxygen measurements.- 8.2.1 Techniques for measuring the oxygen content of bottles.- 8.2.2 Results of measurements.- 8.2.3 Oxygen ingress.- 8.2.4 Combining the effect of initial and ingress oxygen.- 8.3 Oxygen scavenger liners.- 8.3.1 Theoretical.- 8.3.2 Commercial activity.- 8.3.3 Health and environmental concerns.- 8.4 The effect of scavenging closures on beer flavor.- 8.5 The advantages of oxygen control bottles.- 8.6 The future of oxygen scavenging closures.- References.- 9 Commercial applications in North America.- 9.1 Packaging overview.- 9.2 Marketplace susceptors.- 9.2.1 Susceptor types.- 9.2.2 Field intensification devices.- 9.2.3 Susceptor applications.- 9.3 Application of temperature indicator to microwaveable packaging.- 9.4 Active packaging - produce.- 9.4.1 Oya produce bags.- 9.4.2 Oya test results.- 9.4.3 Modified atmosphere produce.- 9.5 Oxygen absorber food applications.- 9.5.1 Bottle closures - oxygen scavengers.- 9.6 Other applications.- References.- 10 Time-temperature indicators.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Indicator systems.- 10.3 Indicator application issues and consumer interests.- 10.4 Chemical indicators for thermal process validation.- 10.5 Conclusions.- References.- 11 Safety considerations in active packaging.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Packaging and food safety.- 11.3 Passive safety interactions.- 11.3.1 Barriers to contamination.- 11.3.2 Prevention of migration.- 11.4 Active safety interactions.- 11.4.1 Emitters and sorbers.- 11.4.2 Active packaging and migration.- 11.4.3 Barrier to contamination.- 11.4.4 Indirect effects on safety.- 11.4.5 Indicators of safety/spoilage.- 11.4.6 Direct inhibition of microbial growth.- 11.4.7 Modified atmosphere packaging.- 11.4.8 Antimicrobial films.- 11.4.9 Rational functional barriers.- 11.4.10 Combined systems.- 11.5 Conclusions.- References.
EAN: 9780751401912
ISBN: 0751401919
Untertitel: 1995. Auflage. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Springer
Erscheinungsdatum: Dezember 1995
Seitenanzahl: 276 Seiten
Format: gebunden
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