Life in the Universe

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März 2005



H. BALTSCHEFFSKYChairman Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Professor Stanley Miller, Professor K. R. Srinivasan, Organizers and Sponsors of this Conference, Ladies and Gentlemen; WearegettingreadyfortheAbdusSalamLecture,honoringtwomostdistinguishedsci- tists. Bothhaveverysigni?cantlycontributedtotherapidgrowthofthesphereoffun- mentalknowledgeinthesecondhalfofthetwentiethcentury. Abdus Salam,theoreticalphysicist,NobelPrizewinner,creatorandlongtimeleader of The Abdus Salam Center of Theoretical Physics. With his active interest in the origin oflifeheplayedaleadingroleininstigatingtheseconferencesonChemicalEvolutionand theOriginofLifehereinTrieste,whichstillareofsuchprimaryimportanceinthis?eld. Heleftthisworldin1996. And Stanley Miller,whomostgenerously,astheAbdusSalamLecturer,isgoingto giveushis Recollectionsofthebeginningofchemicalevolutionexperiments : DearStanley,itisagreatprivilege,andindeedapleasuretointroduceyou. Thisisina wayaquiteeasytask,becauseweallalreadyknowthat theMillerexperiment ,whichis mostappropriatelyplacedinthetitleofthisconference,in1953,exactly50yearsago,was amajorbreakthrough,openingupanewresearch?eldwith,andfor,rationalandadvanced chemicalexperimentationonthemolecularoriginoflife. Itwouldtaketoomuchtimetotrytodescribehereyourscienti?ccarrier,yourprices, yourPresidencyofISSOLandyourmanyothersuccesses. SoIratherwillendthisint- ductionwithacoupleofpersonalrecollections. First I would like to combine something of Abdus Salam and Stanley Miller. Abdus Salamgavethevery?rstinvitedlectureoftheUniversityofStockholmInternationalL- turesonHuman,GlobalandUniversalProblems,in1975. And10yearslater,atLidingo closetoStockholm,StanleyMillergavetheopeninglectureofaconferenceontheMol- ularEvolutionofLife. OnapictureItook,asaco-arrangeroftheseevents,Stanleyisseen approachinginhisusual,modestway,morefocussedonscienti?cdiscussionthanonthe camera. Last but not least, I shall tell you the true story about when we learned that Stanley isanenthusiasticenvironmentalist,inthebestsenseoftheword. About25yearsago,in Stockholm, Stanley, my wife and I strolled in the King s Garden. Its elmtrees were full 7 J. Seckbach et al. (eds. ), Life in the Universe,7 8. C 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 8 of young people who, some even spending nights in the trees, prevented the authorities from removing the elmtrees, by ax and saw. Also Stanley signed a petition to save the elmtrees andtheyweresaved! Stanley, I believe that your greatness as a scientist and as a friend must be linked to the many facets of your wonderful personality. We much look forward to your lecture. THE BEGINNING OF CHEMICAL EVOLUTION EXPERIMENTS Recollections and Perspectives 1 2 3 S. L. MILLER , J. L. BADA , and A.


Dedication Biodata of editors Preface by the editors Acknowledgements Group photograph and List of Attendees
I. Opening Introduction to Life in the Universe; T. Johnson The Abdus Salam Lecture; H. Baltscheffsky The Beginning of Chemical Evolution Experiments; S. Miller, J.L. Bada and A. Lazcano An Overview of Cosmic Evolution; George V. Coyne Physical Phenomena underlying the Origin of Life; Juan Pérez-Mercader
II. Where did the Chemical Elements Come From and When did Life Begin? The Origin of Biogenic Elements; F. Matteucci and C. Chiappini Thermochemistry of the Dark Age; D. Puy Searching for Oldest Life on Earth: A Progress Report; S. Moorbath and B.S. Kamber The European Exo/Astrobiology Network Association; Andre Brack
III. Physical Constraints on the Origin of Life The Origin of Biomolecular Chirality Salam Hypothesis and The Role af Phase Transition in Amino Acids; W. Wang, N. Yao, Y. Chen and P. Lai A Mechanism for the Prebiotic Emergence of Proteins; H.P. De Vladar, R. Cipriani, B. Scharifker and J. Bubis Functional, Self-Referential Genetic Coding; R.C. Guimarães and C.H.C. Moreira Importance of Biased Synthesis in Chemical Evolution Studies; A. Negron-Mendoza, S. Ramos-Bernal and F.G. Mosqueira When Did Information First Appear in the Universe; J.G. Roederer
IV. From the Miller Experiment to Chemical and Biological Evolution Prebiotic Organic Synthesis and the Emergence of Life; L. Delaye, A. Becerra, A.M. Velasco, S. Islas and A. Lazcano Origin and Evolution of Very Early Sequence Motifs in Enzymes; H. Baltscheffsky, B. Persson, A. Schultz, J.R. Pérez-Castiñeira and M. Baltscheffsky The Lipid World: From Catalytic and Informational Headgroups to Micelle Replication and Evolution without Nucleic Acids; A. Bar-Even, B. Shenhav, R. Kafri and D. Lancet Coenzymes in Evolution of the Rna World; M.S. Kritsky, T.A. Telegina, T.A. Lyudnikova and Yu.L. Zemskova The Role of Heat in the Origin of Life; P.R. Bahn, A. Pappelis and R. Grubbs A Possible Pathway for the Transfer of Chiral Bias from Extraterrestrial C_ Tetrasubstituted _-Amino Acids to Proteinogenic Amino Acids; M. Crisma, A. Moretto, F. Formaggio, B. Kaptein, Q.B. Broxterman and C. Toniolo Prebiotic Polymerization of Amino Acids. A Makov Chain Approach; F.G. Mosqueira, S. Ramos-Bernal and A. Negron-Mendoza The Electrochemical Reduction of Co2 to Formate in Hydrothermal Sulfide Ore Deposit as a Novel Source of Organic Matter; M.G. Vladimirov, Yu.F. Ryzhkov, V.A. Alekseev, V.A. Bogdanovskaya, V.A. Otroshchenko and M.S. Kritsky Towards a Chronological Order of the Amino Acids; W.J.M.F. Collis Origin and Evolution of Metabolic Pathways; M. Brilli and R. Fani Conserved Oligopeptides in the Rubisco Large Chains; P.B. Vidyasagar, P. Shil and S. Thomas On The Question of Convergent Evolution in Biochemistry; A.A. Akindahunsi and J. Chela-Flores Diversity of Microbial Life on Earth and Beyond; J. Seckbach
V. Alternative Scenarios for the Origin and Evolution of Life Mineral Surfaces as a Cradle of Primordial Genetic Material; E. Gallori, E. Biondi and M. Franchi Adsorption and Self-Organization of Small Molecules on Inorganic Surfaces; D.G. Fraser Studies on Copper Chromicyanide as Prebiotic Catalyst; Kamaluddin and S.R. Ali Phosphate Immobilization by Primitive Condensers; F. De Souza-Barros, M.B.M. Monte, A.C.P. Duarte, J.A.P. Bonapace, M.R.D. Amaral Jr., R.B. Levigard, Y.A. Ching-San Jr., C.S. Costa and A. Vieyra Adsorption and Catalysis of Nucleotide Hydrolysis by Pyrite in Media Simulating Primeval Aqueous Environments; A. Vieyra, A.C. Tessis, M. Pontes-Buarque, J.A.P. Bonapace, M. Monte, H.S. De Amorim and F. De Souza-Barros
VI. Cosmological and Other Space Science Aspects of Astrobiology Dust and Planet Formation in the Early Universe; G. Vladilo Quasar Absorption-Line Systems and Astrobiology; G. Vladilo A New Search for Dyson Spheres in the Milky Way; D. Minniti, F. Capponi, A. Valcarce and J. Gallardo Space Weather and Space Climate; M. Messerotti
VII. Planetary Exploration in our Solar System: The Interstellar Medium, Micro-Meteorites and Comets Spontaneous Generation of Amino Acid Structures in the Interstellar Medium; U.J. Meierhenrich Experimental Study of the Degradation of Complex Organic Molecules. Application to the Origin of Extended Sources in Cometary Atmospheres; N. Fray, Y. Benilan, H. Cottin, M.-C. Gazeau and F. Raulin Fate of Glycine During Collapse of Interstellar Clouds and Star Formation; S.K. Chakrabarti, S. Chakrabarti and K. Acharyya Formation of Simplest Bio-Molecules during Collapse of an Interstellar Cloud; K. Acharya, S. K. Chakrabarti and S. Chakrabarti Chemical Abundances of Cometary Meteoroids from Meteor Spectroscopy; J.M. Trigo-Rodríguez, J. Llorca and J. Oró
VIII. Earth Analogues of Extraterrestrial Ecosystems Viable Halobacteria from Ancient Oceans; H. Stan-Lotter, C. Radax, S. Leuko, A. Legat, C. Gruber, M. Pfaffernhuemer, H. Wieland and G. Weidler Mars-Like Soils in the Yungay Area, the Driest Core of the Atacama Desert in Northern Chile; R. Navarro-González, F.A. Rainey, P. Molina, D.R. Bagaley, B.J. Hollen, J. De La Rosa, A.M. Small, R.C. Quinn, F.J. Grunthaner, L. Cáceres, B. Gomez-Silva, A. Buch, R. Sternberg, P. Coll, F. Raulin and Ch.P. McKay The Discovery of Organics in Sub-Basement Fossil Soils Drilled in the North Pacific (Odp Leg 197): Their Model Formation and Implications for Astrobiology Research; R. Bonaccorsi and R.L. Mancinelli Silica-Carbonate Biomorphs and the Implications for Identification of Microfossils; A.M. Carnerup, S.T. Hyde, A-K. Larsson, A.G. Christy and J.M. Gracía-Ruiz Some Statistical Aspects Related to the Study of Treeline in Pico De Orizaba; L. Cruz Kuri, C.P. McKay and R. Navarro-Gonzalez
IX. On the Question of Life on Mars and on the Early Earth The Beagle 2 Lander and the Search for Traces of Life on Mars; A. Brack, C.T. Pillinger and M.R. Sims Minimal Unit of Terraforming an Alternative for Remodelling Mars; H.O. Pensado Díaz Early Archaean Life; F. Westall Extraterrestrial Impacts on Earth and Extinction of Life in the Himalaya; V.C. Tewari Palaeobiology and Biosedimentology of the Stromatolitic Buxa Dolomite, Ranjit Window, Sikkim, Ne Lesser Himalaya, India; V.C. Tewari
X. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life, Europa, Titan and Extrasolar Planets Searching for Extraterrestrial Life; T. Owen Search for Bacterial Waste as a Possible Signature of Life on Europa; A.B. Bhattacherjee and J. Chela-Flores Sulfate Volumes and the Fitness of Supcrt92 for Calculating Deep Ocean Chemistry; S. Vance, E. Shock and T. Spohn The Case for Life Existing Outside of our Biosphere; R.S. Gatta Application of Molecular Biology Techniques to Astrobiology; R.S. Gatta and J. Chela-Flores Titan; F. Raulin, J-P. Lebreton and T. Owen Chemical Characterization of Aerosols in Simulated Planetary Atmospheres; S.I. Ramirez, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, P. Coll and F. Raulin Observation, Modeling and Experimental Simulation: Understanding Titan's Atmospheric Chemistry Using These Three Tools; J.-M. Bernard, P. Coll, C.D. Pintassilgo, Y. Benilan, A. Jolly, G. Cernogora and F. Raulin Exobiology of Titan; M. Simakov
XI. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Seti-Italia; S. Montebugnoli, J. Monari, C. Bortolotti, A. Cattani, A. Maccaferri, M. Poloni, A. Orlati, S. Righini, S. Poppi, M. Roma, M. Teodorani, C. Maccone, C. B. Cosmovici and N. D'Amico Seti on the Moon; C. Maccone Proposing a United Nations Secretary General Seti International; Advisory Board: G. Picco, G. Genta, P. Galeotti and D. Noventa Some Engineering Considerations on the Controversial Issue of Humanoids; G. Genta
XII. The Search for Evolution of Intelligent Behavior and Density of Life The New Universe, Destiny of Life, and the Cultural Implications; S.J. Dick Evolution of Intelligent Behavior; J. Chela-Flores Evolution of Language as Innate Mental Faculty; K.T. Shah How Advanced is Et? P. Musso
XIII. Epistemological and Historical Aspects of Astrobiology Chance or Design in the Origin of Living Beings; R. Vicuña and A. Serani-Merlo Astrobiology and Biocentrism; R. Aretxaga Analysis of the Works of the German Naturalist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) on the Origin of Life; F. Raulin-Cerceau A Reexamination of Alfonso Herrera's Sulfocyanic Theory on the Origin of Life ; E. Silva, L. Perezgasga, A. Lazcano and A. Negrón-Mendoza Determinism and the Proteinoid Theory; A. Pappelis and P.R. Bahn Glimpses of Trieste Conferences on Chemical Evolution and Origin of Life; M.S. Chadha
List of Participants

EAN: 9781402023712
ISBN: 1402023715
Untertitel: From the Miller Experiment to the Search for Life on other Worlds. 2004. Auflage. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Springer
Erscheinungsdatum: März 2005
Seitenanzahl: 420 Seiten
Format: gebunden
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