EBOOK

Winemaking: From Grape Growing to Marketplace


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Oktober 2002

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

Over the past several decades, consumer interest in the fine vintage wines produced by small "boutique" vintners across the United States has grown to rival that of many European estates. This attention continues to intensify, especially for the truly good wines that are reasonably priced. Consumers are, however, unforgiving­ especially wine enthusiasts. Second-class wines do not succeed just because a vintner is new. The methods and controls essential to vintners in the production and marketing of top-grade wines have advanced. This second edition of Winemaking has updated and, in some cases, completely revised the material associated with these disciplines. Fine wine is much like other art forms, as it is the infinite variability of factors pertaining to the subject that renders it so complex-and able to attract buyer's attention. Hundreds of different vine varieties are cultivated around the world, and no doubt an even greater number of fruit and berry cultivars. Andwith the addition of such factors as terroir (soil and climate attributes) changing every vintage season, varied vineyard cultivation and harvesting techniques, advancing production technology, dynamic markets, and overall operational philosophy, one can easily understand the enormous breadth and depth of variation that exists. This diversity generates an unimaginable number of different wine possibilities.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1 History of Wine in America.
Eastern America.
Western America.
National Prohibition.
American Wine in the 20th Century and the New Millennium.
The American Wine Booms.
2 Viticulture (Grape Growing).
Site Selection.
Climate.
Soils.
The Vine.
Cultivar Selection.
Vitis vinifera.
Major Vitis vinifera White Varieties.
Chardonnay.
Sauvignon Blanc.
Johannisberg Riesling.
Semillon.
Gewurztraminer.
Muscat de Frontignan.
Pinot Blanc.
Sylvaner.
Pinot Grigio.
Major Vitis vinifera Red Varieties.
Cabernet Sauvignon.
Merlot.
Pinot Noir.
Gamay.
Sangiovese.
Nebbiolo.
Zinfandel.
Syrah.
Cabernet Franc.
Mourvedre.
Petite Sirah.
Vitis labrusca.
Major Vitis labrusca White Wine Varieties.
Catawba.
Delaware.
Niagara.
Major Vitis labrusca Red Wine Varieties.
Concord.
Ives.
Vitis riparia.
Vitis rotundifolia.
Hybrids and Grafting.
French-American Hybrids.
Major French-American Hybrid White Wine Cultivars.
Seyval Blanc.
Vidal Blanc.
Vignoles.
Major French-American Hybrid Red Wine Cultivars.
Chambourcin.
Chancellor.
Marechal Foch.
Vineyard Establishment.
Cost and Value.
Start-Up.
Labor Costs.
Equipment Costs.
Variable Costs.
Fixed Costs.
Budget.
Site Preparation.
Vineyard Layout.
Planting.
Vine Training.
Trellising.
Training Systems.
Weed Control.
Herbicide Injury.
Vineyard Management.
Pruning.
Pest Control.
Diseases.
Insects.
3 Wine Microbiology.
Fermentation.
Yeasts.
Native Yeasts.
Yeast Spoilage.
Yeast Identification.
Commercial Yeasts.
Optimizing Must Conditions.
Preparation of Starter Cultures.
Stuck Fermentations.
Bacteria.
Lactic Acid Bacteria.
Malolactic Fermentation.
Commercial Malolactic Fermentation Cultures.
Encouraging Malolactic Fermentation.
Monitoring Malolactic Fermentation.
Preventing Malolactic Fermentation.
Acetic Acid Bacteria.
Monitoring Vinegar Spoilage.
Controlling Vinegar Spoilage.
Molds.
The Microbiological Workplace.
Equipment.
Factors Affecting Microbial Growth.
Microbial Spoilage.
Juice and Must.
Juice Concentrates.
Bulk Wine.
Bottled Wine.
Wine Preservatives.
Sulfur Dioxide.
Sorbic Acid.
Benzoic Acid.
Fumaric Acid.
Lysozyme.
Dimethyldicarbonate.
Winery Sanitation.
Heat Sanitation.
Ultraviolet Radiation.
Sulfur Dioxide.
Ozone.
Chlorine-Based Compounds.
Iodine Compounds.
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds.
4 Enology (Winemaking).
Grape and Wine Components.
Pectic Enzymes.
Sugars and Sweetness.
Late-Harvest Grapes.
Acids, Acidity, and pH.
Oxygen and Oxidation.
Sulfur Dioxide.
Phenols, Phenolics, and Polyphenols.
Color.
Nitrogenous Compounds: Proteins.
Malolactic Fermentation.
Grape Flavors.
Wine Blending.
Blend Expression Rationale.
Key ATF Blending Regulations.
Key ATF Blending Regulations for Labeling.
Meritage Blending.
Proprietary Blending.
Blending Cost Rationale.
Fining.
Detartration.
Barrel Aging.
Cost Implications.
American Oak versus French Oak.
Conditioning.
New Barrels.
Maintenance of Empty Barrels-Short Term.
Maintenance of Empty Barrels-Long Term.
Soda Ash Treatment.
Chlorine Treatment.
Citric Acid Treatment.
Filtration.
Microfìltration and Ultrafiltration.
Unflltered Wines.
Packaging.
Bottles.
Closures.
Capsules.
Label Rationale.
Label Shapes.
Label Colors.
Label Humor.
Label Experiments.
Key ATF Labeling Regulations.
Winemaking Perils and Pitfalls.
5 Wine Classification.
Table Wines.
Sparkling Wines.
Dessert Wines.
Aperitif Wines.
Pop Wines.
6 Winery Design.
Management.
Feasibility and Finance.
Capital Investments.
Lending Institutions.
Leasing.
Insurance.
Location.
Scale and Size.
Design Motif.
Case Studies.
Remodeled Small Barn.
Simple Custom Design.
7 Requirements, Restrictions, and Regulations.
Application for Basic Permit.
Application to Establish and Operate Wine Premises.
Bonds.
Environmental Impact.
Personnel Questionnaire.
Signature Authority.
Label Approvals.
Formula Wines.
State ABC Regulations.
8 Getting Started.
Recordkeeping.
Computerized Records.
Sanitation.
Quality Control.
Analytical Instrumentation.
pH Meter.
Brix and Balling.
Residual Sugar.
Total Acidity.
Volatile Acidity.
Sulfur Dioxide.
Sensory Evaluation.
Laboratory Refrigerator.
Winery Equipment.
Scales.
Crusher-Destemmer.
Press.
Pumps.
Hose.
Tanks, Barrels, and Other Bulk Wine Vessels.
Key ATF Tank Regulations.
Tanks.
Identification of Tanks.
Measuring Devices and Testing Instruments.
Fermentation Locks.
Refrigeration.
Filters.
Fillers.
Corkers.
Labelers.
Materials.
Potassium Meta-Bisulfite.
Pectic Enzymes.
Yeast.
Fining Agents.
Ascorbic Acid.
Citric Acid.
SorbicAcid.
Bottles.
Corks.
Capsules.
Labels.
Cases.
9 White Table Wines.
Grape Varieties.
Increasing the Fruit Flavor Intensity of White Wine.
Harvesting.
Late Harvest.
Crushing-Destemming.
Pectic Enzymes.
Cold Soaking.
Pressing.
Brix (Sugar) Adjustment.
Acid Additions.
Yeast Inoculation.
Fermentation.
Stuck Fermentation.
First Racking.
Second Racking.
Blending.
Fining and Stabilization.
Aging.
Balancing and Preservation.
Filtration.
Bottling.
Packaging.
Records.
10 Red Table Wines.
Grape Varieties.
Increasing Red Wine Fruit Flavor Intensity.
Harvesting.
Crushing-Destemming.
Pectic Enzymes.
Brix (Sugar) Adjustments.
Acid Additions.
Yeast Inoculation.
Fermentation.
Pressing.
Maceration.
Free-Run and Press Wine.
Racking.
Blending.
Malo-lactic Fermentation.
Fining and Stabilization.
Barrel Aging.
Balancing and Preservation.
Filtration.
Bottling and Corking.
Bottle Aging.
Packaging.
Records.
11 Blush Table Wines.
Grape Varieties.
Crushing-Destemming, Sugar and Acidity Adjustments, and Yeast Inoculation.
Pressing and Fermentation.
Rackings.
Blending.
Clarification and Stabilization.
Aging, Balancing, and Preservation.
Filtration.
Bottling, Corking, and Recording.
12 Fruit and Berry Wines.
Apple Wine.
Bramble Berry Wines.
Blueberry Wine.
Cherry Wine.
Peach Wine.
Strawberry Wine.
Dried Fruit Wine.
Mead.
13 Marketing.
Getting Started.
Image Development.
Market Research.
Marketing Plan.
Marketing Budget.
Marketing Techniques.
Self-Promotion.
Total Package.
Brochures/Newsletter.
Video/CD.
The Winery Web Site.
Direct Mail/Database Marketing.
Advertising.
Cooperative Advertising.
Signage.
Wine Competitions.
Public Relations.
Media Relations.
Media Basics.
Media Kit.
News Releases.
Photographs/Visuals.
Interviewing.
Wine Trails.
Wine Clubs.
Special Events.
Educational Programs.
Industry Relations/Networking.
Wine Associations.
Wineries.
Tourism.
Local Business/Community.
Customer Service.
Team Members.
Winery Tour and Tasting Room.
Sales.
Retail Shop.
Personalized Sales.
Wholesale Distribution.
Repeat Sales.
Conclusion.
Appendix a Suggested Resources.
Catalogs.
Buyer's Guides.
Viticulture Material and Equipment.
Laboratory Materials, Equipment, and Consultants.
New Equipment.
New Tankage.
Used Equipment and Tankage.
Grapes, Must, and Juice.
Computer Software.
Winemaking Materials.
Winery Tasting Room Supplies.
Periodicals.
Appendix B Analytical Procedures.
Microscopy.
Methylene Blue Stain Procedure.
Apparatus and Reagents.
Procedure.
Wet Mount.
Dry Mount.
Gram Stain Procedure.
Apparatus and Reagents.
Procedure.
Malolactic Fermentation Determination by Paper Chromatography.
Apparatus and Reagents.
Procedure.
Bottle Sterility.
Winery Sanitation.
Swab Test.
pH Meter.
Apparatus and Reagents.
Procedure.
Brix-Balling by Hydrometer.
Apparatus.
Procedure.
Brix by Refractometer.
Apparatus.
Procedure.
Alcohol by Ebulliometer.
Apparatus and Reagents.
Procedure.
Extract by Nomograph.
Total Acidity.
Apparatus and Reagents.
Procedure.
Volatile Acidity by Cash Still.
Apparatus and Reagents.
Procedure.
Free Sulfur Dioxide.
Aeration Oxidation Distillation and Titration Procedure for Free Sulfur Dioxide.
Apparatus and Reagents.
Procedure.
Free Sulfur Dioxide by Ripper Method.
Apparatus and Reagents.
Procedure.
Aeration Oxidation Distillation and Titration Procedure for Total Sulfur Dioxide.
Apparatus and Reagents.
Procedure.
Total Sulfur Dioxide by Ripper Method.
Apparatus and Reagents.
Procedure.
Sensory Evaluation.
Apparatus and Conditions.
Procedure.
Visual Mode.
Olfactory Mode.
Gustatory Mode.
Overall Impression.
Appendix C Charts and Tables.
Appendix D Glossary.

Pressestimmen

"This book remains highly recommended as a foundation text for anyone seriously considering opening a winery."
- Wine East
"This is a technical text on winemaking that every winemaker from beginner to advanced should have."
- Dan L. Archibald, Fruit Winemaking Quarterly, January 2003

EAN: 9780306472725
ISBN: 0306472724
Untertitel: Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Erscheinungsdatum: Oktober 2002
Seitenanzahl: 477 Seiten
Format: gebunden
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