EBOOK

An Introduction to Agricultural Biochemistry


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Oktober 1997

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

Agricultural Biochemistry will provide an introduction to the subject of biochemistry from a perspective that will be particularly applicable to agricultural scientists. It will focus on the chemistry of plant and animal metabolism and the biomolecules that are involved in these pathways and then go on to discuss strategies plants and animals adopt for processing of nutrients, the adaptation of these organisms to environmental conditions and the ways in which new genetic engineering techniques can be used to manipulate growth.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

One: The Cell and Cellular Constituents.- 1 Cell structure and function.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Components of cells.- 1.2.1 Plasma membrane.- 1.2.2 Cytoplasm.- 1.2.3 The nucleoid and nucleus.- 1.2.4 Cell walls.- 1.2.5 Ribosomes.- 1.2.6 Endoplasmic reticulum.- 1.2.7 Vacuoles and specialized vesicles.- 1.2.8 Mitochondria.- 1.2.9 Chloroplasts.- 1.2.10 Cytoskeleton.- 1.3 Cell specialization and interaction.- 2 Water and solutions.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 The ionization of water.- 2.2.1 The pH of water.- 2.3 What are acids and bases?.- 2.4 Biological systems, ionic strength and pH.- 2.4.1 Stabilization of pH by buffers.- 2.5 Colligative properties.- 2.5.1 Depression of freezing point.- 2.5.2 Osmotic pressure.- 2.5.3 Semipermeable membranes that allow some solutes to pass.- 3 The carbohydrates.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Structures of sugars.- 3.2.1 Optical isomers.- 3.3 Naming of sugars.- 3.4 Sugars with four carbon atoms, the tetroses.- 3.5 Sugars with five carbon atoms, the pentoses.- 3.5.1 Ring formation in sugars.- 3.5.2 Five- and six-membered rings.- 3.5.3 Ring formation is not permanent.- 3.6 Sugars with six carbon atoms, the hexoses.- 3.6.1 Glucose.- 3.6.2 Fructose.- 3.6.3 Other hexoses.- 3.7 Reducing and non-reducing sugars.- 3.8 Formation of sugar acetals.- 3.8.1 Formation of disaccharides.- 3.8.2 Sucrose.- 3.9 Polysaccharides.- 3.9.1 The storage carbohydrates - starch and glycogen.- 3.9.2 Structural polysaccharides in plants.- 3.9.3 Other polysaccharides and related compounds.- 4 Fatty acids and lipids.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Structure and occurrence of lipids.- 4.2.1 Fatty acids.- 4.2.2 Triacylglycerols and other acylglycerols.- 4.2.3 Glycerophospholipids.- 4.2.4 Glycosylglycerides.- 4.2.5 Sphingolipids.- 4.2.6 Terpenes and steroids.- 4.2.7 Waxes.- 5 Amino acids and proteins.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Amino acids.- 5.2.1 Structure of amino acids.- 5.3 Non-protein amino acids and related compounds.- 5.3.1 Canavanine.- 5.3.2 Selenium-containing amino acids.- 5.3.3 Mimosine.- 5.3.4 Lathyrogens.- 5.3.5 S-methyl cysteine sulphoxide (SMCO).- 5.3.6 Alkaloids.- 5.4 Phenolics.- 5.4.1 Lignin.- 5.4.2 Tannins.- 5.4.3 Flavonoids.- 5.5 Peptide bonds.- 5.6 Protein function and structure.- 5.6.1 Primary protein structure.- 5.6.2 Secondary protein structure.- 5.6.3 Tertiary structure.- 5.6.4 Quaternary structure.- 5.7 Properties of proteins.- 5.7.1 Ionic strength and presence of specific ions.- 5.7.2 Effect of pH.- 5.7.3 Denaturation.- 5.7.4 Effect of heat.- 5.8 Prions.- 6 Enzymes.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Types of reactions catalysed by enzymes.- 6.3 Mode of action of enzymes.- 6.4 Factors contributing to enzyme activity.- 6.4.1 Proximity of substrates at the active site.- 6.4.2 Environment.- 6.4.3 Acid-base catalysis.- 6.4.4 Effects on the stability of substrates and reaction intermediates.- 6.4.5 Formation of covalent enzyme-substrate intermediates.- 6.5 Factors affecting the rates of enzyme-catalysed reactions.- 6.5.1 Enzyme concentration.- 6.5.2 Substrate concentration.- 6.5.3 Temperature.- 6.5.4 pH.- 6.5.5 Presence of inhibitors.- 6.5.6 Presence of coenzymes.- 6.6 Allosteric enzymes.- 6.7 Molecular recognition.- 6.7.1 Receptors.- 6.7.2 Antibodies.- 7 Purines, pyrimidines and nucleic acids.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Purines and pyrimidines.- 7.3 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).- 7.3.1 Chemical nature of DNA.- 7.3.2 The DNA double helix.- 7.3.3 Structure of DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.- 7.3.4 Organelle DNA.- 7.4 Ribonucleic acid (RNA).- 7.4.1 Messenger RNA (mRNA).- 7.4.2 Transfer RNA (tRNA).- 7.4.3 Ribosomal RNA (rRNA).- 8 Vitamins and minerals.- 8.1 Vitamins in biochemistry.- 8.1.1 Introduction.- 8.1.2 Thiamin (vitamin B1).- 8.1.3 Riboflavin (vitamin B2).- 8.1.4 Nicotinic acid (niacin, formerly called vitamin B5).- 8.1.5 Pantothenic acid.- 8.1.6 Pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine (vitamin B6).- 8.1.7 Biotin.- 8.1.8 Folic acid.- 8.1.9 Vitamin B12.- 8.1.10 Vitamin C.- 8.1.11 Choline.- 8.1.12 Carnitine.- 8.1.13 Vitamin A.- 8.1.14 Vitamin D.- 8.1.15 Vitamin E.- 8.1.16 Vitamin K.- 8.2 Minerals in biochemistry.- 8.2.1 Introduction.- 8.2.2 Calcium.- 8.2.3 Phosphorus.- 8.2.4 Magnesium.- 8.2.5 Sodium, chloride and potassium.- 8.2.6 Sulphur and iron.- 8.2.7 Other elements with known biochemical functions.- 9 The composition of agricultural products.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.1.1 Energy storage in animals and plants.- 9.2 The composition of animals.- 9.2.1 Body composition.- 9.2.2 Milk.- 9.3 Plant materials.- 9.4 Principal nutrients in plants and animals.- 9.4.1 Proteins.- 9.4.2 Lipids.- 9.4.3 Carbohydrates.- Two: Metabolism.- 10 Glycolysis.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Stage 1 - preparing glucose for splitting into two three-carbon units.- 10.2.1 Glucose phosphorylation.- 10.2.2 Fructose and its phosphates.- 10.2.3 Splitting of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate.- 10.3 Stage 2 - metabolism of the three-carbon compounds.- 10.3.1 First oxidation step.- 10.3.2 First energy released in the form of ATP.- 10.3.3 Formation of pyruvate.- 10.4 The entry of other sugars.- 10.4.1 Fructose.- 10.4.2 Galactose.- 10.4.3 The entry of glycogen.- 11 The tricarboxylic acid cycle.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 The reactions of the TCA cycle.- 11.2.1 Production of acetyl-CoA.- 11.2.2 Reactions leading to the production of CO2.- 11.2.3 Reactions leading back to the formation of oxaloacetate.- 11.2.4 Overall reactions of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.- 11.3 Links with other metabolic pathways.- 11.4 Replenishment of TCA cycle intermediates.- 11.5 Conversion of propionate to glucose via the TCA cycle.- 11.6 Regulation of the TCA cycle.- 11.7 The glyoxylate cycle.- 12 Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 The mitochondrion.- 12.3 Components of the electron transport chain.- 12.3.1 Flavoproteins.- 12.3.2 The iron-sulphur proteins.- 12.3.3 Ubiquinone.- 12.4 The electron transport chain complexes.- 12.4.1 Complex I - the NADH-dehydrogenase complex.- 12.4.2 Complex II - the succinate dehydrogenase complex.- 12.4.3 Complex III - the cytochrome b, c1 complex.- 12.4.4 Complex IV - cytochrome oxidase.- 12.5 Coupling of electron transport to ATP synthesis.- 12.6 The yield of ATP.- 12.7 NADH produced in the cytoplasm enters the electron transport chain via shuttle reactions.- 12.8 Regulation of oxidative phosphorylation by ADP/ATP supply.- 13 Fatty acid oxidation and lipid breakdown.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 ?-Oxidation.- 13.2.1 Mitochondrial ?-oxidation in animal tissues.- 13.2.2 The reactions of ?-oxidation.- 13.2.3 ?-Oxidation of odd-numbered acids.- 13.2.4 ?-Oxidation of unsaturated acids.- 13.2.5 ?-Oxidation in peroxisomes and glyoxisomes.- 13.2.6 The formation of ketone bodies.- 13.3 ?-Oxidation.- 13.4 ?-Oxidation.- 13.5 Peroxidation of fatty acids.- 13.5.1 Chemistry of lipid peroxidation.- 13.5.2 Prevention of fatty acid peroxidation.- 13.5.3 Detection and measurement of lipid peroxidation.- 13.5.4 Effects of peroxidation in living organisms.- 13.5.5 Lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase.- 13.6 Breakdown of lipids.- 13.6.1 Triacylglycerol breakdown.- 13.6.2 Phospholipid breakdown.- 13.6.3 Breakdown of glycolipids.- 14 Breakdown of proteins and the oxidation of amino acids.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Breakdown of proteins.- 14.2.1 Digestion of proteins.- 14.2.2 Protein turnover.- 14.3 Breakdown of amino acids.- 14.3.1 Transamination reactions.- 14.3.2 Deamination.- 14.3.3 Oxidation of carbon skeletons of amino acids.- 14.3.4 The fate of ammonia.- 14.3.5 The urea cycle.- 14.3.6 The fate of urea in ruminants.- 14.4 Precursor functions of amino acids.- 15 The pentose phosphate pathway.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Oxidative reactions.- 15.3 Rearrangement reactions.- 15.4 Importance of the pathway.- 15.5 Regulation of the pathway.- 16 Fermentation pathways.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 Anaerobic environments in agriculture.- 16.3 Lactate production.- 16.3.1 Muscle metabolism.- 16.3.2 Regeneration of glucose.- 16.4 Animal digestive systems.- 16.4.1 Acetate formation.- 16.4.2 Propionate formation.- 16.4.3 Butyrate synthesis.- 16.5 Soils.- 16.6 Waste treatment.- 16.7 Methane production.- 16.8 Dairy products.- 16.9 Meat.- 16.10 Fermentation in herbages.- 16.11 Ethanol production.- 17 Photosynthesis.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 Chloroplasts.- 17.3 The light reactions.- 17.3.1 Photosynthetic pigments.- 17.3.2 Light absorption.- 17.3.3 Resonance energy transfer.- 17.3.4 The electron transport system.- 17.3.5 Photosystem I.- 17.3.6 Photosystem II.- 17.3.7 Cytochrome b-f complex.- 17.3.8 Plastocyanin.- 17.4 Integration of the electron transport system.- 17.5 ATP production.- 17.6 The dark reactions (Calvin cycle).- 17.7 Control of photosynthesis.- 17.8 Photorespiration.- 17.8.1 Factors affecting rates of photorespiration.- 17.9 Photosynthesis in C4 plants.- 17.10 Crassulacean acid metabolism.- 17.11 Herbicides and photosynthesis.- 18 Gluconeogenesis and carbohydrate synthesis.- 18.1 Introduction.- 18.1.1 Starting materials.- 18.1.2 Outline of the pathway.- 18.1.3 Differences between gluconeogenesis and glycolysis.- 18.2 Gluconeogenesis via pyruvate.- 18.2.1 The control of pyruvate production and use.- 18.3 The production of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate.- 18.4 The hydrolysis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate.- 18.4.1 The control of phosphofructokinase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.- 18.4.2 The fate of fructose-6-phosphate.- 18.5 The utilization of glucose-6-phosphate.- 18.6 Gluconeogenesis from propionate.- 18.7 The synthesis of complex carbohydrates.- 18.7.1 Disaccharides.- 18.7.2 Synthesis of polysaccharides.- 19 Synthesis of fatty acids and lipids.- 19.1 Introduction.- 19.2 Tissue and subcellular location of fatty acid synthesis.- 19.3 Source of the primary substrate - acetate.- 19.4 Production of malonyl-CoA.- 19.4.1 Animals.- 19.4.2 Plants.- 19.4.3 Bacteria.- 19.5 Synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA.- 19.5.1 Acyl carrier protein and its function.- 19.5.2 The reactions of fatty acid synthesis.- 19.5.3 Chain length specificity of fatty acid synthetases.- 19.5.4 Synthesis of branched-chain fatty acids.- 19.5.5 Release of fatty acids from fatty acid synthetase.- 19.6 Fatty acid elongation.- 19.7 Formation of unsaturated fatty acids.- 19.7.1 Desaturation of fatty acids in animals.- 19.7.2 Desaturation of fatty acids in plants.- 19.7.3 Essential fatty acids.- 19.8 Synthesis of triacylglycerols.- 19.8.1 The 2-monoacylglycerol pathway.- 19.8.2 The glycerol-3-phosphate pathway.- 19.8.3 Triacylglycerol synthesis in plants.- 19.9 Phospholipids.- 19.10 Glycolipid synthesis.- 19.11 Synthesis of sphingolipids.- 19.12 Biosynthesis of terpenes and sterols.- 19.12.1 Synthesis of mevalonic acid.- 19.12.2 Conversion of mevalonic acid to squalene.- 20 Synthesis of amino acids.- 20.1 Introduction.- 20.2 Assimilation of nitrate.- 20.3 Nitrogen fixation.- 20.3.1 Molecular biology of nitrogen fixation.- 20.4 Assimilation of ammonia.- 20.5 Biosynthesis of amino acids.- 20.5.1 Aromatic amino acids and related compounds.- 20.5.2 Branched-chain aliphatic amino acids.- 20.6 Nutritional role of amino acids.- 20.7 Herbicides and amino acid biosynthesis.- 21 The synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins.- 21.1 Introduction.- 21.2 Synthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.- 21.3 Replication of DNA.- 21.3.1 DNA synthesis in viruses.- 21.3.2 Accuracy of DNA synthesis.- 21.4 Synthesis of RNA.- 21.5 The genetic code.- 21.6 Protein synthesis.- 21.6.1 Amino acid activation.- 21.6.2 Initiation.- 21.6.3 Elongation.- 21.6.4 Termination.- 21.6.5 Post-translational modification of proteins.- 21.6.6 Location of protein synthesis.- 21.7 Regulation of protein synthesis.- 21.7.1 Regulation in prokaryotes.- 21.7.2 Regulation in eukaryotes.- 21.8 Protein synthesis in chloroplasts and mitochondria.- 21.9 Genetic engineering.- 21.9.1 Enzymes used in DNA manipulation.- 21.9.2 Isolation and synthesis of DNA.- 21.9.3 Gene cloning.- 21.9.4 Screening techniques.- 21.9.5 Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).- 21.9.6 AntisenseRNA.- 21.9.7 Vectors and methods for insertion of DNA into cells.- 21.9.8 Site-specific mutagenesis (oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis).- 22 Compartments, membranes and regulation.- 22.1 Cell compartments.- 22.2 Lipids and membranes.- 22.3 Transport across membranes.- 22.3.1 Membrane transport mechanisms.- 22.3.2 Other functions of membranes.- 22.4 Principles of metabolic regulation.- 22.4.1 Allosteric regulation.- 22.4.2 Covalent modification.- 22.4.3 Changes in the amount of enzyme.- 22.4.4 Coordinated regulation of pathways.- 22.4.5 Coordination of metabolism in different tissues.- Three: Strategies for Processing of Nutrients in Plants.- 23 Seeds and germination.- 23.1 Seeds and plant development.- 23.2 Seeds as food and agricultural commodities.- 23.3 Seed composition.- 23.3.1 Seed carbohydrates.- 23.3.2 Seed lipids.- 23.3.3 Seed proteins.- 23.3.4 Seed minerals.- 23.4 Germination.- 23.4.1 Starch breakdown.- 23.4.2 Beer and whisky production.- 23.4.3 Protein breakdown.- 23.4.4 Lipid breakdown.- 24 Vegetative growth of plants.- 24.1 Introduction.- 24.2 Composition of shoots.- 24.2.1 Plant cell walls.- 24.3 Important shoot crops and their products.- 24.3.1 Temperate grasses.- 24.3.2 Tropical grasses.- 24.3.3 Forage legumes.- 24.3.4 Brassicas.- 24.3.5 Straws.- 24.3.6 Hay.- 24.3.7 Silage.- 24.3.8 Wood.- 24.4 Important root and tuber crops.- 24.4.1 Root crops.- 24.4.2 Tubers.- 25 Reproductive growth.- 25.1 Flowering.- 25.2 Fruit development and composition.- 25.3 Fruit ripening.- 25.3.1 Changes in colour.- 25.3.2 Changes in texture.- 25.3.3 Changes in flavour.- 25.3.4 Respiration in ripening fruit.- 25.4 Seed development.- 25.4.1 Starch biosynthesis.- 25.4.2 Protein synthesis.- 25.4.3 Biosynthesis of fats.- 26 Plant nutrition.- 26.1 Introduction.- 26.2 Biochemical functions of major plant nutrients.- 26.2.1 Nitrogen.- 26.2.2 Sulphur.- 26.2.3 Phosphorus.- 26.2.4 Potassium.- 26.2.5 Calcium.- 26.2.6 Magnesium.- 26.3 Trace elements - micronutrients.- 26.4 Toxic effects of minerals.- 26.5 Interaction between carbon and nitrogen metabolism.- 26.5.1 Carbon assimilation.- 26.5.2 Nitrogen assimilation.- 26.5.3 Senescence and nutrient cycling.- 27 Regulation of plant growth and development.- 27.1 Introduction.- 27.2 Responses to light.- 27.2.1 Effects on photosynthesis.- 27.2.2 Phytochrome-mediated responses.- 27.2.3 Other responses to light.- 27.3 Responses to temperature.- 27.3.1 Photosynthesis.- 27.3.2 Vernalization.- 27.4 Responses to atmosphere.- 27.5 Responses to stress.- 27.5.1 Temperature stress.- 27.5.2 Water stress.- 27.5.3 Salt stress.- 27.6 Nature of plant hormones.- 27.7 Auxins.- 27.7.1 Biochemistry of auxins.- 27.7.2 Synthetic auxins.- 27.7.3 Sites of synthesis and transport of auxins.- 27.7.4 Physiological activities and applications of auxins.- 27.8 Gibberellins.- 27.8.1 Biochemistry of gibberellins.- 27.8.2 Sites of synthesis and transport of gibberellins.- 27.8.3 Physiological activities and applications of gibberellins.- 27.8.4 Growth retardants.- 27.9 Cytokinins.- 27.9.1 Biochemistry of cytokinins.- 27.9.2 Sites of synthesis and transport of cytokinins.- 27.9.3 Physiological activities and applications of cytokinins.- 27.10 Abscisic acid (ABA).- 27.10.1 Biochemistry of abscisic acid.- 27.10.2 Sites of synthesis and transport of abscisic acid.- 27.10.3 Physiological activities and applications of abscisic acid.- 27.11 Ethylene.- 27.11.1 Biochemistry of ethylene.- 27.11.2 Sites of synthesis and transport of ethylene.- 27.11.3 Methods of modulating the effects of ethylene on plants.- 27.11.4 Physiological activities and applications of ethylene.- 27.12 Miscellaneous plant growth regulators.- 27.12.1 Morphactins.- 27.12.2 Maleic hydrazide.- 27.12.3 Glyphosine.- Four: Strategies for Processing of Nutrients in Animals.- 28 Digestion and absorption in ruminants and non-ruminants.- 28.1 Introduction.- 28.2 Structure of the digestive tract.- 28.3 Carbohydrate digestion in monogastric animals.- 28.4 Carbohydrate digestion in ruminants.- 28.5 Absorption and utilization of glucose.- 28.6 Digestion of lipids in monogastric animals.- 28.6.1 Digestion in the stomach.- 28.6.2 Digestion in the small intestine.- 28.7 Absorption of lipid from the small intestine.- 28.7.1 Glycerides and fatty acids.- 28.7.2 Phospholipids.- 28.7.3 Cholesterol.- 28.7.4 Chylomicron formation.- 28.8 Uptake of absorbed lipid by body tissue.- 28.9 Digestion of lipids in ruminant animals.- 28.10 Lipid digestion in poultry.- 28.11 Digestion of proteins in monogastric animals.- 28.11.1 Digestion in the stomach.- 28.11.2 Digestion in the small intestine.- 28.12 Digestion of protein in ruminants.- 28.13 Inhibitors of digestive enzymes.- 29 Maintenance.- 29.1 Introduction.- 29.2 Body temperature and heat production.- 29.3 Biochemical production of heat.- 29.3.1 Background heat production from the maintenance of ion gradients in cells.- 29.3.2 Background heat production from protein turnover.- 29.3.3 Background heat production from other metabolic events.- 29.3.4 Heat production from muscular activity.- 29.3.5 Heat production from uncoupled phosphorylation.- 30 Regulation and manipulation of growth and development in animals.- 30.1 Introduction.- 30.1.1 General principles.- 30.2 Rates and patterns of growth.- 30.3 Muscle growth.- 30.3.1 Cellular growth as a component of muscular growth.- 30.3.2 Protein accretion as a component of growth.- 30.3.3 Control of protein synthesis.- 30.4 Growth of collagen.- 30.5 Growth of bone.- 30.5.1 Calcification of bone.- 30.6 Growth of adipose tissue.- 30.6.1 Growth in adipose tissue cell number.- 30.6.2 Deposition of fat within adipocytes.- 30.7 Manipulation of growth.- 30.7.1 Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factors.- 30.7.2 Oestrogens and androgens.- 30.7.3 The ?-agonists.- 30.7.4 Glucocorticoids.- 30.7.5 Thyroid hormones.- 30.7.6 Antibiotics.- 31 Lactation and its manipulation.- 31.1 Introduction.- 31.2 Origins of the components of milk..- 31.3 The origin of lactose.- 31.4 Milk proteins.- 31.4.1 The origin of milk proteins.- 31.4.2 Amino acid supply to the mammary gland.- 31.4.3 Protein synthesis.- 31.5 The fats.- 31.5.1 Synthesis de novo.- 31.5.2 Uptake of fatty acids from blood.- 31.5.3 Modifications to fatty acids in the mammary gland.- 31.6 The supply of energy in the mammary gland.- 31.7 Metabolism in lactation..- 31.7.1 Endocrine control of lactation.- 31.8 Manipulation of lactation.- 31.8.1 Dietary manipulation of lactation.- 31.8.2 Manipulation of milk production by exogenous hormones.- 32 Muscle and meat.- 32.1 Introduction.- 32.2 Biochemistry of muscular contraction.- 32.2.1 Structure of thick filaments.- 32.2.2 Structure of thin filaments.- 32.2.3 Mechanism of muscle movement.- 32.2.4 Control of muscle movement.- 32.3 Energy provision in muscle tissue.- 32.3.1 Myoglobin.- 32.4 Changes in muscle after death.- 32.4.1 Enzymes leading to the degeneration of myofibrils.- 32.4.2 The role of myoglobin.- 32.4.3 Conditioning.- 32.4.4 Cold shortening.- 32.4.5 Effects of stress pre-slaughter.
EAN: 9780412643903
ISBN: 0412643901
Untertitel: 1998. Auflage. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Springer
Erscheinungsdatum: Oktober 1997
Seitenanzahl: 512 Seiten
Format: kartoniert
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