The World Trading System
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BeschreibungThe author highlights the tension between legal rules, designed to create predictability and stability, and the governments need to make exceptions to solve short-term problems. He also looks at weaknesses of international trade policy, especially as it applies to developing countries and economies in transition. He concludes with a look at issues that will shape international trade policy well into the twenty-first century.
InhaltsverzeichnisPart 1 The policies and realities of international economic regulation: law, politics and the dismal science; the policy assumptions of the international economic systems; competing policy goals and noneconomic objectives; international law and international economic relations - an introduction; the tangled web - is there a warp and a woof?. Part 2 The international institutions of trade - the WTO and the GATT: the Bretton Woods system and its context; the flawed constitutional beginnings of GATT; the World Trade Organization and the Uruguay Round; the obligations of GATT and their legal setting; the GATT and WTO as institutions; GATT, the Trade Negotiation Rounds and the WTO. Part 3 National institutions: introduction; the United States constitution and its effects on trade relations; United States law and international trade; the variety of national constitutions and their impact on the international trading system. Part 4 Rule implementation and dispute resolution: the effectiveness of international law; GATT as prologue to dispute-settlement procedures; legal process and trade disputes in GATT and the WTO; the WTO dispute-settlement process; national procedures for citizen initiation of international economic disputes; looking at the future of dispute settlement and rule application in the WTO. Part 5 Tariff and nontariff barriers: import restrictions and GATT/WTO obligations; GATT bindings and tariff negotiations; classification for tariff purposes; valuation for customs purposes; quantitative restrictions and other nontariff measures. Part 6 The most-favoured-nation policy: most-favoured-nation obligation and its politics; the meaning of MFN; exceptions to MFN and potential for bilateralism; rules of product origin; MFN, bilateralism and possible trends - some conclusions. Part 7 Safeguards and adjustment policies: the policies and history of the escape clause and the international structure for safeguards; the escape clause in GATT/WTO and the United States; the escape clause - legal prerequisites and practice; the escape clause - remedies and procedures; the escape-clause MFN question; law and practice regarding adjustment; export restraints, agreements and arrangements; reforms and the Uruguay Round safeguards text. Part 8 National treatment obligations and nontariff barriers: the policies and history of the national treatment obligation; the contours and application of the GATT obligation; defacto or implicit discrimination; border tax adjustments; technical standards; government procurement. Part 9 Competing policies and ingenious devices: protecting the value of tariff concessions and competing policies; national security; the general exceptions and legislation for health and welfare; pollution and regulation of the manufacturing process; restrictive business practices; balance-of-payments exceptions and currency obligations; other policies for future consideration - investment and labour standards. Part 10 Unfair trade and the rules
Untertitel: 'Security'. Empfohlen ab 18 Jahre. Revised. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: MIT PR
Erscheinungsdatum: Oktober 1997
Seitenanzahl: 453 Seiten