Annual Editions: American History, Volume 1, 18/E

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August 2004



This updated reader is a compilation of current newspaper, magazine, and journal articles relating to issues in American history. Annual Editions: American History, Volume 1 is designed for non-specialized survey courses. This text presents a fair sampling of articles that incorporate newer approaches to the study of history as well as more traditional ones. The sources from which these essays have been taken, for the most part, are intended for the general reader. This title is supported by Dushkin Online (www.dushkin.com/online/), a student website designed to provide study support tools and links to related websites.


UNIT 1. The New Land 1. Island Hopping to a New World, Alex Markels, U.S. News & World Report, Feburary 23 - March 1, 2004Archeologists once belived that American Indians migrated to the New World afoot across the Bering land bridge. More recent finds, however, indicate they may have come by boat much earlier than previously thought.2. 1491, Charles C. Mann, The Atlantic Monthly, March 2002"Before it became the New World," Charles Mann writes, "the Western Hemisphere was vastly more populous and sophisticated than has been thought." He surveys new research that indicates Indians lived in this hemisphere much longer than previously assumed, and that they had a larger impact on the environment. 3. Slavery in the Lower South, OAH Magazine of History, April 2003Slavery in what became the United States, according to the conventional wisdom, was introduced in Jamestown in 1619. Landers shows that both free and enslaved Africans arrived with the Spaniards more than a century before that. Wherever they went they encountered Native Americans held in slavery.4. Pocahontas, William M.S. Rasmussen and Robert S. Tilton, American History, July 1995Few names from American colonial history are as well known as Pocahontas, an Indian woman who allegedly saved Captain John Smith's life in 1607. The little we actually know about her has become wrapped up in mythology, some of which is used to pursue agendas having little to do with the facts. 5. Instruments of Seduction: A Tale of Two Women, Sandra F. VanBurkleo, OAH Magazine of History, Winter 1995In the 1630's, Ann Hibben and Anne Hutchinson were tried and convicted for committing crimes against the community and "entertaining diabolical religious ideas." They had violated Puritan teachings about the proper roles women should play in society.6. The Pueblo Revolt, Jake Page, American History, February 2002The killing of Franciscan priests in 1680 marked the beginning of a Pueblo Indian revolt against Spanish rule in New Mexico. The Spanish were forced to leave the province in defeat, and when they did reestablish control they treated Pueblo religious practices with far greater respect.7. Penning a Legacy, Patricia Hudson, American History, February 1998In 1680, William Penn, who earlier had become a Quaker, petitioned King Charles II for a grant of land in what would become known as Pennsylvania. Penn created a constitution that provided for religious freedom, voting rights, and penal reform. He also addressed Native Americans in the region, asking them to permit colonists to live among them "with your love and consent." 8. Blessed and Bedeviled: Tales of Remarkable Providences in Puritan New England, Helen Mondloch, The World & I, May 2002In 2001 the governor of Massachusetts signed a bill exonerating the last five individuals convicted in the Salem Witch trials of 1692. The author of this essay examines the attitudes and beliefs that led to the persecution of at least 150 people. 9. Roots of Revolution, Dick Conway, American History, December 2002In 1691, Britain passed a series of laws designed to preserve large pine trees as masts for the British Navy. New Hampshire lumbermen resented these laws and in 1734 staged a mini-uprising in protest. Other incidents took place in several New England provinces. "The Pine tree," Conway writes, "became a symbol of New England's growing defiance of what was believed to be ever more stifling acts of British oppression.UNIT 2. Revolutionary America 10. The American Self, Mark Richard Barna, The World & I, June 1997Throughout the colonial era, thoughtful individuals had wrestled with the apparent contradiction between the needs of the community and the threat of selfish individualism. By the revolutionary era, Barna writes, "Americans were simply too greedy and self-interested for communalism to work." He analyzes this dilemma from that time to the present. 11. Ben Franklin's 'Scientific Amusements,', Dudley R. Herschbach, Harvard Magazine, November/December 1995One image of Ben Franklin is that of the inveterate tinkerer, dabbling with this or that practical invention such as bifocals. The author of this essay, a Nobel Prize winner in chemistry, discusses Franklin's enormous contributions to theoretical science. His immense intellectual stature, Herschbach writes, "played a major role in the success of the American Revolution."12. Flora MacDonald, Jean Creznic, American History, May/June 1997Flora MacDonald was a Scottish heroine who had helped "Bonnie Prince Charlie" escape the British in 1746. She moved to North Carolina in 1774, where she was received with great fanfare. When the revolution came, however, she helped recruit men of Scottish descent to fight for the British.13. Founding Friendship: Washington, Madison and the Creation of the American Republic, Stuart Leibiger, History Today, July 2001Though they later drifted apart, the collaboration between George Washington and James Madison during the critical years 1784 and 1787 had a profound impact on the Constitution and the government it produced.14. Making Sense of the Fourth of July, Pauline Maier, American Heritage, July/August 1997On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress resolved that "these United Colonies are, and, of right ought to be" independent of Great Britain. Two days later, the Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. Celebrating the Fourth of July, Pauline Maier writes, "makes no sense at all"--unless we celebrate not just independence but the Declaration of Independence. She explains how the meaning and function of the Declaration have changed over time. 15. Hamilton Takes Command, Smithsonian, January 2003A 20 year old Alexander Hamilton formed his own militia company in 1775. His brilliance and courage brought him rapid advancement and, more importantly, he attracted the attention of George Washington. Hamilton went on to become one of the least appreciated founding fathers. 16. Winter of Discontent, Norman Gelb, Smithsonian, May 2003George Washington generally is regarded as one of the nation's greatest presidents. During the revolutionary war however, his leadership of the army came under bitter criticism and the Conway Cabal nearly led to his resignation.17. Founders Chic: Live From Philadelphia, Evan Thomas, Newsweek, July 9, 2001"It is hard to think of the Founders as revolutionaries," Evan Thomas writes, "They seem too stuffy, too much the proper gentlemen in breeches and powdered wigs." But, he argues, those who made the American revolution and consolidated it were extreme radicals at the time.18. Your Constitution Is Killing You, Daniel Lazare, Harper's Magazine, October 1999Some people passionately believe that the Second Amendment to the Constitution guarantees Americans the untrammeled right to bear arms. Others just as passionately believe that the amendment must be read within the context of membership in the various state militias. Daniel Lazare examines the changing interpretations of this vexing question.UNIT 3. National Consolidation and Expansion 19. The First Democrats, Joseph J. Ellis, U.S. News & World Report, August 21, 2000During the early years of the republic there were no political parties, or "factions" as contemporaries called them. This all changed after John Adams became president in 1797. Ellis shows how the two-party system began, "amid backroom deals, lying politicians, and a scandal-hungry press." 20. The Revolution of 1803, Peter S. Onuf, Wilson Quarterly, Winter 2003The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 more than doubled the size of the United States, which some Americans already believed was too large. This acquisition had enormous ramifications at the time and changed the course of the nation's history. 21. Brains and Brawn: The Lewis and Clark Expedition, Tom Huntington, American History, April 20032003 marked the 200th anniversary of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Although the endeavor usually is presented as a great adventure--which it was--it also provided an enormous amount of scientific information. 22. African Americans in the Early Republic, Gary B. Nash, OAH Magazine of History, Winter 2000Although coverage of African Americans in history textbooks is far more comprehensive than it was a few decades ago, Nash discusses five areas that still receive short shrift. Among these are topics such as the rise of free black communities and early abolitionism.23. Andrew Jackson Versus the Cherokee Nation, Robert V. Remini, American History, August 2001As president, former Indian fighter Andrew Jackson in 1836 used his office to bring about the removal of the Cherokees from Georgia to west of the Mississippi. When the great removal began several years later, the tribe suffered grievously on what became known as "the trail of tears." 24. New Horizons for the American West, Margaret Walsh, History Today, March 1994Settling the West, for many Americans, remains the heroic tale of pioneers conquering a continent as told frequently in movies and popular novels. More recently, historians have focused on diverse topics such as the role of women, the plight of minority groups who were shunted aside, and unglamorous subjects such as water supplies. 25. The Great Famine, Edward Oxford, American History, March/April 1996Between 1845 and 1850, successive potato crop failures devastated Ireland. About 1.5 million Irish fled to the United States, others went elsewhere. They met with a great deal of discrimination here, partly because so many of them were Roman Catholic. In spite of this, they had great impact on all aspects of American life. 26. James K. Polk and the Expansionist Spirit, Harlan Hague, Journal of the West, July 1992During the presidential election of 1844, Polk campaigned for the annexation of Texas and occupation of the Oregon territory. As president, he compromised with the British over Oregon, but went to war with Mexico over Texas. He left to successors the vexatious question of slavery in the newly-acquired areas. 27. Little Women? The Female Mind At Work in Antebellum America, Louise Stevenson, History Today, March 1995Although much has been written about women in the pre-Civil War era, Stevenson argues, relatively little has been devoted to their intellectual lives. She explores the contribution of educated middle class women. 28. A Violent Crusader in the Cause of Freedom, Ron Schaumburg, The New York Times Upfront, February 7, 2003John Brown hoped that his raid on Harpers Ferry would touch off slave rebellions across the South. These never took place, but his actions inflamed controversy throughout the nation.UNIT 4. The Civil War and Reconstruction29. "The Doom of Slavery": Ulysses S. Grant, War Aims, and Emancipation, 1861-1863, Brooks D. Simpson, Civil War History, March 1990The nature of the Civil War changed in 1863 from a limited conflict to total war against Southern morale and resources as well as manpower. General U. S. Grant, of the Union army, realized that, at bottom, the dispute was about slavery. 30. Richmond's Bread Riot, Alan Pell Crawford, American History, June 2002In 1863, thousands of women marched through the streets of Richmond demanding food. Confederate President Jefferson Davis confronted the protesters, who warned them they might be shot if they did not disperse. The incident passed without bloodshed, but indicates how badly off the South really was. 31. The Civil War's Deadliest Weapons were not Rapid-Fire Guns or Giant Cannon, but the Simple Rifle-Musket and the Humble Minie Ball, Allan W. Howey, Civil War Times, October 1999There is an old saying that generals fight current wars with the knowledge they learned in previous ones. Howey shows how the basic rifle-muskets used by both sides in the Civil War were so effective as to render obsolete tactics such as frontal assaults. Failure to adapt to the new weapon caused hideous casualties. 32. A Bold Break for Freedom, Mark H. Dunkelman, American History, December 1999In 1862 an intrepid slave named Robert Smalls highjacked a Southern ship, which he turned over to the North. Smalls continued to pilot the ship until after the war, whereupon he entered Southern politics to try to preserve black freedoms.33. A Gallant Rush for Glory, William C. Kashatus, American History, October 2000On July 18, 1863, the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, consisting of 600 black men launched an assault on the Southern stronghold of Fort Wagner, just outside Charleston, South Carolina. The attackers fought gallantly, but were repulsed with heavy losses. William Kashatus examines how black units came to be formed during the war and describes the battle itself.34. Between Honor and Glory, Jay Winik, The American Spectator, March 2001This essay describes the last weeks of the war for the battered Army of Northern Virginia, led by Robert E. Lee. Despite gruelling marches to escape entrapment, it became clear to Lee that defeat was inevitable. Some, including the president of the Confederacy, urged that the units disband to fight on as guerillas. Lee refused. Jay Winik speculates on the horrors a guerilla war probably would have produced and how it would have affected the nation. 35. Absence of Malice, Ronald C. White, Jr., Smithsonian, April 2002Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address, White believes, was his finest speech and provides the key "to understanding Lincoln's greatness." This essay also provides a description of the events during inaguration day in Washington, D.C. 36. America's Birth at Appomattox, Anne Wortham, The World & I, May 1999Wortham argues that ties of "friendship, battlefield comradship, and shared nationality" helped to further reconciliation between the North and South after the fighting stopped.37. The New View of Reconstruction, Eric Foner, American Heritage, vol. 34, no. 6 (October/November 1983)Prior to the 1960s, according to Eric Foner, Reconstruction was portrayed in history books as "just about the darkest page in the American saga." He presents a balanced view of the era and suggests that, even though Reconstruction failed to achieve its objectives, its "animating vision" still has relevance.
EAN: 9780072968859
ISBN: 0072968850
Untertitel: Revised. Sprache: Englisch.
Erscheinungsdatum: August 2004
Seitenanzahl: 224 Seiten
Format: kartoniert
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