Effective Argument: A Writer's Guide with Readings
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BeschreibungThe writing and reading of arguments is often a challenging task. This book helps hone critical reading and writing skills for novices writers. Part One offers readers instruction on how to read arguments critically and to write them effectively. Part Two offers more than 50 readings divided into four groups: speaking up; taking sides; varying voices; and classical arguments. New material includes a section on citing electronic sources; 28 new readings; and a new organization. Writers interested in polishing their argument style and their critical reading skills.
Inhaltsverzeichnis* Indicates New to this edition. I.EFFECTIVE ARGUMENT. Argumentation and the Writing Process. Modes of Writing. Some Key Terms. 1.The Argumentation Process. Basic Considerations. Claims and Support. Finding and Stating the Claim. Providing Support. Summaries of Arguments. Types of Claims. 2.Supporting the Claim. Supporting the Claim of Fact. Supporting the Claim of Value. Supporting the Claim of Policy. Using Definitions in Supporting Claims. Using Comparison or Analogy to Support Claims. Using Cause and Effect to Support Claims. 3.Organizing the Support. Two Classical Approaches. 4.Warrants. Strength of the Warrant. Back to Warrants. 5.Refutation. Attacking the Support. Attacking the Argument's Form. Attacking the Warrant. Another Effective Method of Refutation. 6.Putting It All Together. Arranging the Claim and Support. Using Sources. Background. Gaining Attention. Conclusions. II.READING AND ANALYZING ARGUMENTS. Physical Aids to Reading Arguments. Mental Aids to Reading Arguments. Practicing the Suggestions for Reading Arguments. Speaking Up: Argumentative Essays on Various Topics. Claims of Fact. * B.J. Phillips, Irresponsible to Allow Companies to Push Credit Cards at Young. Gary Turbak, Plastic: 60 Billion Pounds of Trouble. M.G. Lord, Frats and Sororities: The Greek Rites of Exclusion. * Constance J. Poten, Shameful Harvest. Claims of Value. S.I. Hayakawa, Sex Is Not a Spectator Sport. Peter Drucker, What Employees Need Most. Rachel L. Jones, What's Wrong with Black English. * Richard Reeves, A Better Health Plan Goes Rejected. Claims of Policy. * Cindy Gray, Elementary Schools Need More Male Teachers. * Elizabeth M. Whelan, Perils of Prohibition. * Daniel Singal, The Other Crisis in Our Schools. * Donella H. Meadows, Don't Swamp Parks with Ad Money. Refutation. * Sarah J. McCarthy, Will Jelly Beans Be Illegal? April Oursler Armstrong, Let's Keep Christmas Commercial. * William Pfaff, Ban Political Ads on TV, Radio. Betty Rollin, Motherhood: Who Needs It? Taking Sides: Differing Arguments on Important Issues. I.Censorship. * Michael Gartner, Right and Wrong Way to Get Involved. * Nathan McCall, My Rap Against Rap. II.Women in Combat. Edward Sims, Military Takes Equality Too Far. * Lois DeFleur, Vivid Images Shouldn't Alter View of Women in Combat. III.Sexism. Michael W. Hirschorn, Facing Up to Sexism. Kristin A. Goss, Taking a Stand Against Sexism. IV.The Pros and Cons of Gambling. * Daniel Seligman, Why I Gamble. * Chris Ison and Dennis J. McGrath, Gambling's Toll in Minnesota. V.Should College Athletes Be Paid? * Douglas S. Looney, Cash, Check, or Charge. * Ron Green, Paying Athletes? Colleges Do Not Need This "Cure." VI.The Death Penalty. Ernest van den Haag, The Deterrent Effect of the Death Penalty. Vivian Berger, Rolling the Dice to Decide Who Dies. VII.Evolution Versus Creationism. Stephen Jay Gould, Evolution as a Fact and Theory. Duane T. Gish, A Creationist's Reply to Gould. VIII. The Usefulness of Studying a Second Language. Daniel Shanahan, We Need a Nationwide Effort to Encourage, Enhance, and Expand Our Students' Proficiency in Language. Walter Ulrich, Importance of Studying Languages Questioned. Varying Voices: Multiple Viewpoints on Crucial Questions. I.Who Should Control the Right to Die? Lowell L. Erdahl, Euthanasia Is Sometimes Justified. * Linda Chavez, We Don't Need Assisted Suicide. * Peter J. Bernardi, Is Death a Right? * James Kilpatrick, Right to Die a Tough Call for the States. II.What Should Be Done About Gun Control? Warren Burger, The Right to Bear Arms. * Molly Ivins, Ban the Things. Ban Them All. * Christopher Hitchens, Minority Report. * Erma Bombeck, Kids Killing Kids Has Got to Stop. III.Should We Compromise on Cigarette Smoking? * C. Everett Koop, Stopping Kids from Smoking: Do We Really Want to Do It? * Richard Heyman, Help Kids Get Over the Hump. * Richard Blatt, Curbing Ads Won't Work and It's Unconstitutional. Joan Beck, The True Toll of Cigarettes Is Staggering. Selected Classic Arguments. Plato, The Duty of a Citizen. Niccolo Machiavelli, The Morals of a Prince. Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal. Benjamin Franklin, An Argument Against Payment of Salaries to Executive Officers of the Federal Government. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments. Sojourner Truth, Ain't I a Woman? Clarence Darrow, Crime and Criminals. Walter Lippmann, The Indispensable Opposition. Mortimer Adler, How to Mark a Book. Martin Luther King, Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail. Appendix.
Untertitel: Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: PRENTICE HALL
Erscheinungsdatum: Oktober 1997
Seitenanzahl: 431 Seiten