Toxicity Assessment Alternatives

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Juli 1999



Toxicity Assessment Alternatives: Methods, Issues, Opportunities contains a broad array of critical surveys, contributed by active and respected investigators, describing their research and offering updates on toxicity assessment alternatives, directions determined by current and future grant programs, opportunities for mechanistically based test methods to detect endocrine disruptor activity, the use of alternatives in the Department of Defense hazard assessment initiatives, and the issues and opportunities for validation and regulatory acceptance. Several of these advances make use oftransgenic models that reduce the time and cost of carcinogenicity testing. Others use tissue cultures for the assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Cultures of human epidermal keratinocytes are applicable as models for sulfur mustard lesions, and in vitro protein denaturation is used as a chemical test for assessing the ocular and dermal irritation potential of cosmetic prod­ ucts. Molecular modeling is applied to explaining chemical toxicity. Commercially developed assay systems have undergone extensive evaluation by their manufacturers. Some of these await external valida­ tion, and others await acceptance by North American and European regulatory agencies. Toxicity Assessment Alternatives: Methods, Issues, Opportunities provides information from members of the scientific and regulatory communities on what has been achieved and what has been accepted in alternatives to animal testing.


Part I. Recent Developments on Alternatives. Tissue Engineering: An Important Technology for Assessment of Toxicity, Edith R. Schwartz. Tissue Engineering: Technology Applications and FDA Initiative, Kiki B. Hellman. Electrical Resistance Method for Measuring Volume Changes in Astrocytes, Michael Aschner. Cytotoxicity Profiles for a Series of Investigational Compounds Using Liver Slice Technology and Human-Derived Cell Cultures, Sanjeev Thohan and Ho Chung. Antagonistic Interaction of Sodium Arsenite and Lead Sulfite with UV Light on Sister Chromatid Exchanges in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes, Spiros P. Katsifis and Patrick L. Kinney. The Role of Upper Airway Heat and Water Vapor Exchange in Hygroscopic Aerosol Deposition in the Human Airway: A Deposition Model, Jonathan W. Kaufman. Moving Average Interpolation for Malathion LC50 Estimation on Dugesia Tigrina: Comparison with Probit and 'One-Point' Methods, R. B. Worobec. Physiological Modeling of Benzo(a)pyrene Pharmacokinetics in the Rat, David Moir.
Part II. Current Trends and Future Directions. Resources for Biomedical Research: Opportunities for Alternatives, Elaine Young.
Part III. Mechanistically Based Test Methods as Alternatives. Endocrine Disruption in Wildlife: Scientific Processes and Principles for Evaluating Effects, Richard Dickerson and Ronald Kendall, Sr. Mechanistic Animal-Replacement Approaches for Predicting Pharmacokinetics of Organic Chemicals, Patrick Poulin, Martin Beliveau, and Kannan Krishnan.
Part IV. Use of Alternatives in Hazard Assessment Initiatives. Validation of the Cytosensor(TM) Microphysiometer for In Vitro Cytotoxicity Testing, R. J. Mioduszewski, C. J. Cao, M. E. Eldefrawi,
A. T. Eldefrawi, D. E. Menking, and J. J. Valdez. Sulfur Mustard Effects on Cell Yield Alter Viability Assessment in Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes, Janet Moser, Susan A. Kelly, and Henry L. Meier. Development of Human Keratinocyte Colonies For Confocal Microscopy and for Study of Calcium Effects onGrowth Differentiation and Sulfur Mustard Lesions: A Model, Robert J. Werrlein, Tracey A. Hamilton, and Janna S. Madren-Whalley. Phosgene-Induced Calcium Changes in Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells, Robert J. Werrlein, Stephen D. Kirby, and Janna S. Madren-Whalley. Enhanced Proteolytic Activity and Fc Receptor Expression in Human Epithelial Cells Following Exposure to Sulfur Mustard, Fred M. Cowan, Clarence A. Broomfield, and William J. Smith. Altered Expression of lntracellular and Surface Antigens By Cultured Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Exposed to Sulfur Mustard, William J. Smith. Effect of Sulfur Mustard Exposure on Human Epidermal Keratinocyte Viability and Protein Content, William J. Smith, James A. Blank, Rebekah A. Starner, Ronald G. Menton, and Joy L. Harris. The Use of In Vitro Systems to Define Therapeutic Approaches to Cutaneous Injury by Sulfur Mustard, William J. Smith, Margaret E. Martens, Clark L. Gross, Offie K. Clark, Fred M. Cowan, and Jeffrey J. Yourick. Effects of Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors on the Sulfur Mustard-Induced Disruption of the Higher-Order Nuclear Structure of Human Lymphocytes, Henry L. Meier and Charles
B. Millard. DNA Repair Enzymatic Response in Cultured Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure, K. Ramachandra Bhat, Betty J. Benton, and Radharaman Ray. Human Hepatocytes: A Novel Animal Alternative, John
C. Lipscomb and Patricia
D. Confer.
Part V. Validation, Regulatory Acceptance, and Animal Protection Perspectives. An Animal Protection Perspective, Martin L. Stephens. Federal Interagency Activities Toward Validation and Regulatory Acceptance of Alternative Tests, Errol Zeiger. Index.


"The value of these methods is that they can provide alternatives to more expensive and politically sensitive animal testing methods. . .By focusing on the human keratinocyte cell system, the complex response to sulfur mustard provides an excellent case example of the value of these alternative methods, and in this, this book is unique in the field. "-Doody's Health Sciences Book Review Journal
"This book is an up-to-date description of what has been accomplished thus far in developing acceptable alternatives to classical animal toxicity assessment methods. It includes not only reviews about alternatives for animal testing as such (e.g., tissue cultures for dermal toxicity and endocrine disruptor assessment, in vitro protein denaturation to assess ocular and dermal irritation potential of chemicals, and validation of alternative tests), it also reports on increasing testing efficiency (e.g., trans-genic models that reduce time and cost of carcinogenicity testing), and it presents tools for a better understanding of the toxic process (e.g., molecular modeling to explain chemical toxicity)....it presents a handsome and conveniently arranged overview of the topics and perspectives regarding the state-of-the-art of alternative toxicity testing."-EUROTOX European Societies of Toxicology
EAN: 9780896037878
ISBN: 0896037878
Untertitel: Methods, Issues, Opportunities. 1999. Auflage. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Humana Press
Erscheinungsdatum: Juli 1999
Seitenanzahl: 288 Seiten
Format: gebunden
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