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Reasoning & Writing Well: A Rhetoric, Research Guide, Reader, and Handbook


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Mai 2005

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

This modes-based reader/rhetoric/handbook offers students a comprehensive and student friendly approach to the writing process that emphasizes critical thinking as the key to successful college writing..

Inhaltsverzeichnis

* - indicates material that is new to this edition

Contents

A Note to Instructors

Rhetoric and Research Writing Guide

PART 1, The Context of Writing

CHAPTER 1, The Rhetorical Situation and the Writing Process

Why Learn to Reason and Write Well?

Writing Sharpens Thinking Skills

Writing Opens Opportunities to Learn

Writing Nurtures Personal Development

Writing Helps to Establish Relationships

Writing Fosters Success in College and the Workplace

What Is the Rhetorical Situation?

Occasion for Writing

Purpose for Writing

The General Purpose

The Specific Purpose

Writing a Purpose Statement

Topic

Audience

Voice of the Writer

The Writing Process

Writing and Ethics

Thinking about What You Have Learned

For Your Reference: Reading, Summarizing, and Other Study Skills

Practice

CHAPTER 2, Thinking Rhetorically

Thinking about the Writer¿s Voice

Workplace Case Study: A Series of Collection Letters

How Should a Writer¿s Voice Sound?

Word Choice Influences Voice

Considering How Casual Conversation Differs from Focused Writing

Thinking about Usage: Standard and Nonstandard

Standard Usage

Nonstandard Usage

Dialect and Regionalism

Where are Usage Labels and Abbreviations Found?

What If Dictionaries Disagree?

Three Vocabularies: Speaking, Writing, and Reading

Thinking about Levels of Formality

Informal Standard English

Watch the Pronouns

Mixing Levels of Formality

Professional English

Formal English

Considering Four Common Concerns

Slang and Abbreviations

Misused Colloquialisms

Switching Pronouns in Mid-Sentence

Using Prescriptive Tone Appropriately

Diplomatic Strategies

Thinking about What You Have Learned

Test Yourself

Practice

Test Yourself Answers

CHAPTER 3, Beginning to Think Critically: Accuracy and Ethics

Why are Accuracy and Truth Important?

Employers Expect the Truth

An Audience Expects the Truth

Truth Is the Cornerstone of Trust

Evaluating: Searching for Truth

What is an "Established" Fact?

Evidence Accepted as Fact in Court

Inferences are Unproven

Value Judgments and Point of View

Evaluating the Writer¿s Voice

Four Ways Misinformation Arises

Expert Opinion Sometimes Changes

A Small Survey Is Inadequate Proof

Facts Are Misstated and Overstated

Stereotyping Shuts Out Fact

Ethical Considerations: Writing Responsibly

Limiting Unsound Generalizations

Using Absolute Terms Accurately

Identifying Inferences and Other Opinions

Revising for Accuracy

Thinking about What You Have Learned

Test Yourself

Practice

Test Yourself Answers

CHAPTER 4, Prewriting and Drafting: Discovering and Developing Ideas

I. Prewriting Strategies

Freewriting

Brainstorming

Clustering

Questioning

Keeping a Journal

II. Strategies for Drafting

Fleshing Out Prewriting Notes

Turn Off Your Internal Censor

When Ideas Disappear

Focusing on Exploratory Draft

Narrowing a Topic

Case Study: Nita Narrows Her Topic

Identifying the Audience and Writing a Purpose Statement

Drafting a Basic Thesis Statement

Where Should the Thesis Go?

Omitting a Thesis Statement

Starting a Scratch Outline

Selecting a Title

Drafting an Introduction

Begin with an Anecdote that Sets the Scene

Overuse of the Pronoun I

Guideline for using the Pronoun I

Begin with a Description

Begin by Stating a Problem

Begin with a Surprising Statistic or Striking Bit of History

Begin by Disputing a Common Belief or Defying a Stereotype

Seven Basic Ways to Organize a Draft

Chronological Order

Spatial Order

Order of Importance

Order of Generality

Order of Formation

Order of Complexity

Order of Materiality

Writing an Effective Conclusion

End by Referring Back to the Thesis

End with a Personal Response

End on a Note of Optimism

End with a Reference to a Benefit

End with an Unexpected Twist

Drafting on a Computer

Thinking about What You Have Learned

Practice

PART 2, REVISION WORKSHOP: RETHINKING THE DRAFT

Overview: How Does the Rhetorical Situation Affect Information Design?

CHAPTER 5, Considering REVISING, EDITING, AND PROOFREADING

How Do You Become Your Own Editor?

Revision: Stage 3 of the Writing Process

Five Major Steps of Revision

1. Acknowledge the Need

2. Read and Question

3. Reread and Mark the Draft

4. Revise and Refine

5. Let Cool, Then Check the Focus

Refocusing a Draft

Focusing the title

Creating an Intriguing Title

Outlining

Finding a Fresh Perspective

Clarifying the Draft

Revising Sluggish Openings

Revising the Body

Revising the Conclusion

Case Study: A Series of Student Outlines and Drafts

Editing and Proofreading: Stage 4 of the Writing Process

Major Tasks in Editing and Proofreading

Marking the Revised Draft

Making Sentences Clear and Concise

Finding, Fresh Language

Create a Simile or Metaphor

Experiment with Alliteration and Rhyme

Proofreading Effectively

Peer Review: Helping to Improve Each Others¿ Writing

Thinking about What You Have Learned

Practice

CHAPTER 6, Revising Paragraphs

Qualities of Effective Paragraphs

Interest

Unity

Completeness

Coherence

Clarity

Elements of an Effective Paragraph

The Topic Sentence

Support Sentences

A Concluding Sentence

Prewriting and Drafting Paragraphs

Narrowing a Topic Sentence

Positioning the Topic Sentence

The Topic Sentence at the Beginning

The Topic Sentence in the Middle

The Topic Sentence at the End

Unifying a Paragraph without a Topic Sentence

Adjusting Paragraph Length

Strategies to Organize and Develop Paragraphs

Narrative Paragraphs

Descriptive Paragraphs

Process Analysis Paragraphs

Illustration Paragraphs

Comparison or Contrast Paragraphs

Paragraphs of Definition

Transitional Paragraphs

Thinking about What You Have Learned

Practice

CHAPTER 7, Restyling Sentences

Strategies for Effective Sentences

Choosing an Effective Voice for Verbs

Favoring the Active Voice

Using Understood You

Replacing Forms of Be

Crafting Sentences and Punctuating

The Simple Sentence

The Compound Sentence

Coordinating Conjunctions

Avoiding Comma Splices and Fused Sentences

The Complex Sentence

The Compound Complex Sentence

The Periodic Sentence

Sentence Length

Positioning Elements within the Sentence

Moving Elements in Independent Clauses

Moving Modifiers and Adding Commas

Using Expletives

Creating Parallel Structures

Parallel Items in a Series

Parallel Items in Pairs

Parallel Comparisons

Parallel Correlative Conjunctions

Chopping out Deadwood

Unnecessary References to Self

Unnecessary Prepositional Phrases

Condensing Adjective Clauses

Thinking about What You Have Learned

Test Yourself

Practice

Test Yourself Answers

CHAPTER 8, Selecting Effective Words

Advantages of Reading

Improving Word Choice

Making the Message Clear

Using Abstract Words

Choosing Concrete Words

Moving from General to Specific

Scholarly or Simple Words?

Considering Technical Jargon

Making the Message Appropriate

Weeding Out Trite Language and Clich¿

Distinguishing Denotation from Connotation

Considering Euphemisms

Thinking about Positive and Negative Words

Focusing on the Positive

Using Negative Prefixes

Using Courtesy Words

Using Inclusive Language in the Workplace

Replacing Sexist Terms with Gender-free Terms

Avoiding Generational Conflict

Replacing Other Offensive Terms with Respectful Terms

How When, and Where Will You Deliver the Message?

Thinking about What You Have Learned

Test Yourself

Practice

Test Yourself Answer

Part 3: WRITING STRATEGIES

Overview: Mising Writing Strategies for a Purpose

CHAPTER 9, Narrating Memorable Events

Purpose and Ethics

General Purpose

Specific Purpose

Elements of Narration

Where and When

Who

What

Why

Point of View in Narration

First-Person Narration

Mixing Writing Strategies

Third-Person Narration

Writing a Narrative Paper

Prewriting

Drafting an Introduction

Opening with Action

Opening with a Quotation

Opening with a Comparison

Organizing a Narrative Paper

Developing the Narrative Paper

Dialogue

Concrete Details and Action Verbs

Building Suspense

Writing a Conclusion

Ending with a Hint or a Hope

Ending with a Surprise

Ending with a Reaction

Writing a Narrative Report

Revising a Narrative

Two Student Papers: Narration

For Your Reference: Narrative Essays in the Reader

Practice

Twenty Ideas for a Narrative Paper

CHAPTER 10, Describing Significant Impressions

Purpose of Description

What Exactly Is Description?

Creating a Dominant Impression

Subjective and Objective Description

Planning a Paper of Description

Prewriting

Determining a Dominant Impression

Selecting a Vantage Point and Transition

Drafting a Paper of Description

Drafting an Introduction

Organizing a Description

Developing a Description

Revising a Description

Two Student Papers: Description

For Your Reference: Descriptive Essays in the Reader

Practice

Twenty Ideas for Descriptive Papers

CHAPTER 11, Analyzing a Process

What Is Process Analysis?

Directions for Procedures

Use Second Person for Clarity

Workplace Case Study: Ethan Solves the Office Lounge Problem

Process Descriptions

Using First Person

Using Third Person

Transition in Process Analysis

Writing a Process Paper

Selecting a Topic and Prewriting

Drafting an Introduction

Generalization Followed by Restriction

Historical Opening

Combining Second Person with Person

Developing a Process Paper

Writing a Conclusion

Revising a Process Paper

Two Student Papers: Process Analysis

For Your Reference: Process Analysis Essays in the Reader

Test Yourself

Practice

Test Yourself Answers

Twenty Ideas for Process Papers

CHAPTER 12, Illustrating with Effective Examples

Purpose of Examples

Elements of Illustration

Writing a Pa
per of Illustration

Prewriting

Organizing and Developing a Paper of Illustration

Order

Relevant, Accurate, and Sufficient Examples

Weaving Examples with Explanation

Writing a Conclusion

Revising a Paper of Illustration

Two Student Papers: Illustration

For Your Reference: Illustration Essays in the Reader

Practice

Twenty Ideas for Papers for Illustration

CHAPTER 13, Classifying: Sorting into Groups

Purpose of Classification

What Is the Basis of Classification?

Ethical Concerns

Writing a Paper of Classification

Shaping a Topic to the Purpose and Audience

Prewriting with the "Because" Technique

Organizing a Classification Paper

Drafting a Thesis Statement

Developing Main Points and Embedding Transition

Student Essay with the Main Points in the Thesis

Making Main Points Parallel

Writing a Conclusion

Revising the Paper

Two Student Papers of Classification

For Your Reference: Classification Essays in the Reader

Test Yourself

Practice

Test Yourself Answers

Twenty Ideas for Classification papers

CHAPTER 14,Comparing and Contrasting for a Purpose

The Purpose of a Comparison or Contrast Paper

Determining a Purpose

Selecting a Suitable Topic

Analogy: A Special Kind of Comparison

Writing a Paper of Comparison or Contrast

Gathering Information and Prewriting

Organizing a Paper of Comparison or Contrast

Drafting an Introduction

Developing a Comparison or Contrast Paper

Writing a Conclusion

Transition in Comparison or Contrast Papers

Revising a Paper of Comparison or Contrast

Two Student Papers: Comparison

For Your Reference: Comparison/Contrast Essays in the Reader

Test Yourself

Practice

Test Yourself Answers

Twenty Ideas for Comparison or Contrast Papers

CHAPTER 15, Defining: IDENTIFYING BASIC CHARACTERISTICS

The Purpose of Definition

Formal Sentence Definition

Extended Definition

Consulting Sources

Documenting Sources

Guidelines for Using Extended Definitions

Writing a Paper of Extended Definition

Narrowing a Topic and Prewriting

Organizing a Paper of Definition

Drafting a Special Introduction

Establishing Transition

Developing an Extended Definition

Operational Definition

Defining by Comparison

Definition by Synonym

Definition by Negation

Weaving Example with Explanation

Including a Dictionary Definition for a Purpose

Writing a Conclusion

Closing with a Formal Sentence Definition

Alluding to an Opening Quotation

Ending with a Personal Lesson

Revising a Paper of Definition

Two Student Papers: Definition

For Your Reference: Definition Essays in the Reader

Practice

Twenty Ideas for Papers of Definition

CHAPTER 16, Investigating Causes and Consequences

Purpose of Causal Analysis

Workplace Case Study: The Accident

What Is Causal Analysis?

A Reversed Chain of Cause and Effect

Logical Principles of Cause-and-Effect Relationships

Two Fallacies to Avoid in Analyzing Cause and Effect

Writing a Paper of Cause and Effect

Planning a Cause and Effect Paper

Drafting an Introduction

Developing a Paper Analyzing Cause and Effect

Writing a Conclusion

Revising a Cause-and-Effect Paper

Two Student Papers: Cause and Effect

For Your Reference: Cause and Effect Essays in the Reader

Practice

Twenty Ideas for Papers of Cause and Effect

PART 4, Strategies for Critical Thinking, Evaluation, and Argument

CHAPTER 17, Proposing a Solution

Dewey¿s Method of Problem Solving

Ethics: How Can One Be Objective?

Workplace Case Study: Writing a Company Policy

Organizing a Problem-Solving Paper

Writing Strategies and Outlining

Writing a Problem-Solving Paper

Selecting a Topic and Prewriting

Organizing a Problem-Solving Paper

Drafting an Introduction

Identifying Criteria

What Are Criteria?

Stating Criteria

Proposing and Evaluating Alternatives

Writing a Conclusion

Revising a Problem-Solving Paper

Two Student Papers: Problem-Solving

For Your Reference: Problem-Solving Essays in the Reader

Practice

Twenty Ideas for Problem-Solving Papers

CHAPTER 18, Shaping an Effective Argument

Purpose of Argument

Three Classic Appeals Used in Argument

Workplace Case Study: ¿You Got a Tiger by the Tail!¿

The Logical Appeal

The Ethical Appeal

The Emotional Appeal

Using the Three Appeals

Understanding Opposing Views and Overcoming Objections

Writing a Classic Argument Paper

Selecting a Topic

Gathering Information and Prewriting

Stating a Position

Planning the Shape of an Argument

Drafting a Neutral Introduction

Finding a Common Ground

Acknowledging Points of Agreement and Clarifying

Refuting Opposing Points

Dodging Fallacies

Writing a Conclusion

Revising an Argument

Two Student Papers: Classic Argument

For Your Reference: Argument Essays in the Reader

Practice

Twenty Ideas for Papers of Argument

CHAPTER 19, Detecting Fallacies

Logical Fallacies

Card Stacking

Either/or Fallacy

False Analogy

Red Herring

Begging the Question/Circular Argument

Hasty Generalization

Non Sequitur

Workplace Case Study: Non Sequitur--A Grocer's Mistake

The Post Hoc Fallacy

Emotional Fallacies

Argumentation ad Hominem/Straw Man

Bandwagon

Plain Folk Appeal/ad Populum

Status Appeal

Scare Tactics

Testimonial and Improper Appeal to Authority

Glittering Generalities

Ethics: Dealing with Fallacies

Test Yourself

Practice

Test Yourself Answers

PART 5, Reading Strategies and Responses to Literature

CHAPTER 20, Reading Critically and Responding to Essays

What to Expect in Essays

Purpose of Essays

Characteristics of Personal Essays

Characteristics of Formal Essays

Point of View and Voice

Figurative Language

The Power of Plain Words

Critical Reading

Evaluating What You Read

A Strategy for Critical Reading

Writing a Paper of Reaction or Essay Exam Answers

Two Types of Reactions

A Commentary

An Argument

Prewriting and Outlining

Drafting

Writing a Commentary

Planning an Argument

Revision and Editing

Student Paper: Reaction

For Your Reference: Essays in the Reader

Practice

Twenty Ideas for Reaction Papers

CHAPTER 21, Reading and Responding to Short Stories, Novels, and Plays

The Human Condition

The Role of the Reader

How Do Short Stories Differ from Novels?

What Are the Major Characteristics of Novels?

How Does Reading a Play Differ from Reading a Novel?

Elements of Literature

Point of View

Setting

Plot

Characters

Symbolism

Irony

Theme

Figurative Language and Literary Devices

Preparing an Analysis of Literary

Writing about Point of View

Writing about Setting

Writing about Plot

Writing about Character

Writing about Symbols

Writing about Irony

Writing about Theme

Revising

Student Paper: Literary Analysis

For Your Reference: Short Stories in The Reader

Twenty Ideas for Papers of Literary Analysis

CHAPTER 22, READING AND RESPONDING TO POETRY

How Can a Reader Get Hold of a Poem?

ARTHUR GUITERMAN, On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness

CARL SANDBURG, Grass

Reading Narrative Poems

COUNTEE CULLEN, Incident

Reading Lyric Poems

Special Effects with Words

Imagery in Lyric Poems

JOSO, The Barley Field

SORA, The Barley Field

EMILY DICKINSON, [I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed]

[Anonymous],, Inception

ARCHIBALD MACLEISH, Ars Poetica

Preparing an Analysis of a Poem

Developing Your Analysis

Organizing the Paper

Revising an Analysis of a poem

Student Paper: Analysis of a Poem

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, [I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud]

Practice

PART 6, SURVIVAL GUIDE: PREPARING FOR EXAMS, ORAL PRESENTATIONS, AND EMPLOYMENT

Overview: Fending off the Wolves

CHAPTER 23, Strategies to Prepare for Exams

Time Management

Setting Priorities, Scheduling, and Implementing

Reading, Note-Taking, and Review

Ten Ways to Improve Retention

Reviewing for Final Exams

Predicting Exam Questions

Before the Exam

Three Kinds of Exams

Open Book Exams

Multiple Choice Exams

Essay Exams

Writing Complete Essay Exam Answers

Understanding the Question

Drafting Complete Essay Answers

Paragraph Essays

Sample Paragraph Essay

Long Exam Essays

For Your Reference: Study Aids for Literature

Practice

CHAPTER 24, Making Professional Presentations

Whether Speaking to Six or to Sixty

How Do Writing and Speaking Differ?

Presenting Versus Reading

Four Types of Presentations

Planning an Extemporaneous Presentation

Preview the Setting

Assess the Audience

Consider the Occasion

Define the Purpose

Select an Appropriate Topic

Credibility, Organization, and Development

Consider Credibility

Organizing an Informative Presentation

Organizing a Persuasive Presentation

Considering Ethics, Logic, and Emotion

Choosing the Right Words

Improving Transition

Options for Introductions and Conclusions

Introductions

Conclusions

Preparing Notes and Audiovisuals

Notes on Paper or Cards?

Creating Effective Audiovisuals

Practicing a Presentation

Revising Note Cards

Using Audiovisuals

Improving Eye Contact,Posture, and Gestures

Improving Vocal Variety

Giving a Presentation

Arrive Early

Take a Deep Breath . . .

Don¿t Apologize Unnecessarily

Adapt to the Audience

End Purposefully and Gracefully

Questions and Answers

A Student¿s Persuasive Presentation

Practice

Twenty Ideas for Oral Presentations

CHAPTER 25, Effective Employment Writing

I. Writing an Effective Resume

Ethics, Accuracy, and Resumes

Ten Reasons Resumes Are Discarded

Two Popular Styles of Resumes

The Chronological R¿m¿
The Functional R¿m¿
Research and Prewriting for a Resume

Gaining an Overview of a Career Field

Directory 1: Reliable Career Resources

Identifying Employers¿ Needs

Identifying Qualifications

Workplace Skills

Academic Skills

Personal Skills

Personal Qualities and Work Habits

Drafting a Resume

The Service-Oriented Job
Objective

Summary of Qualifications

Grouping and Sharpening Skills

Adding Action Verbs

Citing Accomplishments

Education

Work Experience

Gaps in Work Experience

A Series of Short-term Jobs

Other Information on a R¿m¿
Organizing a Resume

Organizing a Chronological R¿m¿
Organizing a Functional R¿m¿
Case Study: Mark Focuses His Functional R¿m¿
Scannable R¿m¿

Keyword Summary

Editing and Printing

E-mail R¿m¿

Preparation

Precaution

Responding to Online Ads and Posting Resumes Online

Formatting a Printed Resume

Revising, Editing, and Proofreading a Resume

Checking Layout and Order

Adjusting Length of Printed R¿m¿

Eagle-Eyed Proofreading

Scrutinizing Word Choice

Directory 2: Online Employment Writing Resources

II. Writing Letters and Other Correspondence for Employment

Ten Common Mistakes in Letters

Writing E-Mail Messages

Effective Introductions

The Name Opening

The Creative Opening

The Summary Opening

The Question Opening

The Body of the Letter

How to Handle the Salary Question

Effective Conclusions

Other Considerations

Email Cover Letters

Revising a Cover Letter

Format for a Business Letter

Packaging Job Search Documents

Providing a List of References

Writing a Letter of Appreciation

Workplace Case Study: Connect the Dots

Writing a Letter of Acceptance

Writing a Letter of Refusal

Writing a Letter of Resignation

PART 7, A WRITER'S RESEARCH GUIDE

Chapter 26, Planning Research

Primary and Secondary Research

The Path to Objectivity

Fact or Idea?

Scheduling Research Tasks

Is a Schedule Really Necessary?

Will the Internet Cut Research Time?

Collecting Source Information

A Note of Encouragement

Practice

Chapter 27, Locating Print and Electronic Sources

Determing the Aim or Purpose

Informative Research Papers

Problem-Solving Research Papers

Research Papers of Argument

Selecting an Appropriate Topic

Limiting the Topic

Starting Points

Writing a Controlling Question

Case Study: Flora Narrows a Very Broad Topic

Balancing Print and Electronic Sources

Two Important Precautions

Avoid Identity Theft

Know How to Avoid Plagiarism

Finding and Evaluating Print and Electronic Sources at the Library

Finding Your Way around the Library

Preliminary Reading: General References

Electronic Central Catalog

Periodical Indexes and Abstracts

General Indexes

Specialized Indexes

Government Publications

Bibliographies

Locating Print Sources

Scanning Sources and Evaluating Content

Selecting Suitable Sources

Previewing Sources: Criteria

Making a Working Bibliography

How to Begin

Accessing Networks to Borrow Materials

Finding and Evaluating Internet Sources

Internet Directories

Evaluating Web Sites

Clues to Sponsors of Web Sites

Domain Names

Evaluating the Reliability of Internet Documents

Check for a Monitor

Watch for Credentials

Examine the Source Data

Notice the Tone

Notice Dates

Evaluate the Coverage

Preserving Online Source Information

Obtain as much Data about Each Sources as Possible

Save Internet Source Documents Until Your Paper Is Returned

Directory of Reliable Web Sites

Practice

Twenty Ideas for Research

Chapter 28, Identifying Sources: Supplying Documentation

What Precisely Is Documentation

Three Steps to Avoid Plagiarism

Which Documentation Style Is Appropriate?

Frequently Asked Questions: Source Information

MLA Style of Documentation

Chapter 28 MLA Style Directory

Parenthetical Citations: MLA Style

Using Notes with MLA Parenthetical Citations

Content Notes

Bibliographic Notes

Recommended Abbreviations for MLA Works Cited Entries

Preparing a List of Works Cited: MLA Style

1. Sample MLA Entries for Books

2. Sample MLA Entries for Articles

3. Sample MLA Entries for Miscellaneous Sources

4. Sample MLA Entries for Electronic Sources

APA Style of Documentation

Chapter 28 APA Style Directory

Parenthetical Citations: APA style

Preparing a Reference List: APA style

A. APA Entries: Periodicals

B. APA Entries: Books, Brochures, and Government Publications

C. APA Entries: Audiovisual Media

D. APA Entries: Electronic Media

Internet Articles Based on a Print Source

Periodicals on the Internet

Nonperiodical Documents on the Internet

Nonperiodical Publications on CD-ROM

Practice

Chapter 29, Using Sources and Writing a Research Paper

Workplace Case Study: Tracking the Truth

When Is a List of Sources Required?

Research Reading

Examining Dates and Credentials

Using Tentative Words to Discuss Findings and Theories

Recognizing Information That Must Be Acknowledged

Restating Common Knowledge

Acknowledging Everything Else

Citing Professional Opinions and Conclusions

Note-taking, Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting

Note-Taking and Critical Reading

Replacing Major Words with Synonyms

Summarizing

Paraphrasing

Using Quotations

Making Changes in Quotations

Ellipsis

Brackets

Quotation within a Quotation

Making a Working Outline

Drafting a Research Paper

Drafting a Thesis and Introduction

Using Signal Phrases to Integrate Quotations into the Text

Weak Phrases

Short Quotations

Block Quotations

Inserting Explanatory Notes

Writing a Conclusion

Revising, Editing, and Formatting

Revising

Checking Documentation

Editing and Proofreading

Using an Appropriate Format

Margins and Indentations

MLA Style Heading, Title, and Page Numbering

APA Style Headings, Title, and Page Numbering

Annotated Student Research Paper: MLA Style

Test Yourself

Practice

Test Yourself Answers

Chapter 30, Field Research: Observation, Interviews, and Surveys

Observation

Selecting a Site

Preparing to Observe

Keeping a Log

Interviews

Types of Interviews

Informational Interviewing

Unstructured Versus Structured Interviews

Types of Questions

Surveys

Planning a Survey

Representative and Random Samples

Constructing a Questionnaire

Distributing Questionnaire

Workplace Case Study: Cindy Surveys Dress Codes for Bank Employees

Drawing Conclusions from a Survey and Interviews

Making an Outline

Writing a Primary Research Paper or Report

Organizing and Interpreting Findings

Observation

Interviews and Surveys

How Resear
EAN: 9780073205762
ISBN: 0073205761
Untertitel: Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: MCGRAW HILL BOOK CO
Erscheinungsdatum: Mai 2005
Seitenanzahl: 723 Seiten
Format: kartoniert
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