RFID at Ultra and Super High Frequencies: Theory and Application

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Februar 2010



In the past, very little practical information or training has been available for engineers, technicians and students in the area of radio frequency identification (RFID) systems at ultra high frequencies (UHF) and super high frequencies (SHF).
Here, Dominique Paret offers you a complete guide to the theory, components, practical application areas and standards in RFID at UHF and SHF. He achieves an expert balance between theory and technology, finance and other aspects, providing a clear view of the entire field.
This book deals with the real aspects of contactless applications in detail, and divided into five parts, covers:
* Basic principles, general considerations and the market, defining all essential terms and the different tags and applications.
* Wave propagation principles and theory.
* Communication and transmission, baseband signals, carrier modulation and interactions, discussing communication modes between the base station and tag, and energy transfer modes.
* International safety standards and regulations, including International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) models, and methods for evaluating commercial tags.
* Components for tags and base stations.
This comprehensive reference is ideal for computer and electronics engineers working on the design and development of RFID systems for the electronics industry, as well as for those in other industries such as automotive, security and transport, who want to implement RFID into their business.
Dominique Paret's book is also a solid and thorough technical introduction to the subject for graduate level students and researchers in electronics and industrial engineering design.


About the author
Note to Readers
Part One RFID: General Features, Basic Principles and Market
1 Introduction, Definitions and Vocabulary
1.1 To Understand Radio Frequency, We Must Know about Frequencies and Their
1.2 RFID: Who Uses It and What For?
1.3 History
1.4 Radio Frequency (or Contactless) Identification and Its Range of Applications
1.5 The Concept of Contactless Communication
1.6 The Elements, Terms and Vocabulary of RFID
1.7 Vocabulary: The Many Terms Used for the Elements Of RFID
1.8 Appendix: Units and Constants
2 General Operating Principles of the 'Base Station and Tag' Pair
2.1 Energy Transfer and Communication Modes
2.2 Forward Link and Return Link
2.3 Data Communications
2.4 The Principle of Communication
2.5 The Concept of Operating Modes
2.6 General Operating Problems in Data Transmission
2.7 More Specific Problems Relating to 'Long Distance' RFID Systems
3 The Market and Applications for Contactless Technology
3.1 The Market for Contactless Technology and RFID
3.2 Applications for Tags
3.3 Operators and Participants in the Market
Part Two Wave Propagation: Principles, Theories ... and the Reality
4 Some Essential Theory
4.1 The Phenomenon of Propagation and Radiation
4.2 The Hertzian Dipole
4.3 Classification of Fields and Regions of Space
4.4 RFID Applications Using UHF and SHF, i.e. Far Field Applications
4.5 The Hertzian Dipole and the Dipole of any Length, "/n and "/2
4.6 List of the Main Formulae in This Chapter
4.7 Appendix 1: Brief Notes on Maxwell's Equations
4.8 Appendix 2: Brief Notes on Complex Numbers
4.9 Appendix 3: Brief Notes on Powers Expressed as Complex Numbers
4.10 Appendix 4: Brief Notes on Vectors
5 Wave Propagation in Free Space
5.1 Isotropic and Anisotropic Antennas
5.2 Antenna Gain
5.3 Power Flux Density at One Point in Space
5.4 Effective Radiated Power PERP
6 Power Recovery at the Terminals of the Tag Antenna
6.1 Recovering the Transmitted Radiated Power (or Some of It)
6.2 The Concept of Aperture or Surface
6.3 Definition of the Main Parameters Required for an RFID Application
7 Reality Check: How to Manage Everyday Problems
7.1 Effects of the Application Environment
7.2 Tag Polarization Losses, ¿polarization = P
7.3 Antenna Load Mismatch Factor, ¿load matching = Q
7.4 Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)
7.5 Losses Due to the Physical Design of the Antenna, ¿antenna
7.6 By Way of Conclusion
7.7 Real-World Examples of RFID at UHF and 2.45 GHz
7.8 Effects of the Mounting of the Integrated Circuit on the Tag Substrate
7.9 By Way of Conclusion
7.10 Example at UHF and SHF
7.11 Appendix: Fact and Fantasy about UHF Tags and Water
8 Reflection and/or Reradiation of Waves and RFID Applications
8.1 The Physical Phenomenon of Wave Scattering
8.2 Scattering Modes
8.3 Power Dispersed/Reradiated/Reflected by the Tag, Ps
8.4 Radar Cross-Section (RCS) of the Tag, Ãe s
8.5 Appendix
9 The Back Scattering Technique and Its Application
9.1 The Principle of Communication by Back Scattering between the Base Station and the
9.2 The Merit Factor of a Tag, "Ãe s or "RCS
9 3 Appendix: Summary of the Principal Formulae of Chapters 7, 8 and 9
10 RFID Case Studies Summarizing the Preceding Chapters
10.1 Case 1: Application to a 'Remotely Powered Passive Tag'
10.2 Case 2: Application to a 'Battery-Assisted Passive Tag'
10.3 Examples 1a and B: Application to a 'Remotely Powered Passive Tag'
10.4 Example 2: Application to a 'Battery-Assisted Passive Tag'
Part Three Communication and Transmission, Baseband Signals, Carrier Modulation and Interleaving
11 Digital Aspect: Bit Coding and Baseband Signals
11.1 Bit Coding
11.2 Different Types of Bit Coding for RFID at UHF and SHF
11.3 Summary of the Different Types of Bit Coding
12 Analogue Aspect: Carrier Modulation Methods
12.1 Type of Modulation
12.2 Types of Carrier Modulation for the Forward Link from the Base Station to the Tag
12.3 Amplitude Modulation
12.4 Frequency Modulation and Phase Modulation
12.5 Conclusion
13 Spread Spectrum Techniques
13.1 Frequency Hopping and Agility Systems and Spread Spectrum Techniques
13.2 Spread Spectrum Techniques (Spread Spectrum Modulation, SS)
13.3 Frequency Hopping or Agility Systems for Spreading the Radiated Spectrum of Narrowband Modulated Carriers
13.4 Spread Spectrum Systems for Spreading the Radiated Spectrum of Wide Band Modulated Carriers
13.5 'Hybrid' Spread Spectrum Techniques: DSSS and FHSS
13.6 Back to the Future
13.7 Examples at SHF
13.8 FHSS, LBT, DSSS ... and RFID
14 Interactions and Conclusion
14.1 Relations, Interactions and Performance: How They Are Affected by the Choice of Bit Coding and the Types of Modulation Used
14.2 General Conclusion of Part Three
Part Four Standards and Regulations
15 Standards for RFID at UHF and SHF
15.1 The Purpose of the Standards
15.2 Users and Providers of Standards
15.3 The ISO/OSI Layer Models
15.4 ISO Standards for Contactless Technology
15.5 Appendix 1: Hierarchy and Structure of the EPC System
15.6 Appendix 2: The Structure of the EPC Number
15.7 Appendix 3: Some Facts about the Everyday Performance of ISO 18000-6 mode C - EPC C1 G2
16 Regulations and Human Exposure
16.1 Survey of Standards and Regulations
16.2 Summary of Regulations in the USA, Europe, France and the Rest of the World Relating to RFID at UHF and SHF
16.3 Standards for Magnetic and Electrical Fields in a Human Environment: Human Exposure
16.4 Other Requirements to be Met
16.5 Appendix: Local Regulations in France
17 The Effects and Repercussions of Regulations on Performance
17.1 Frequencies
17.2 Transmission Level
17.3 Summary
17.4 Comparison between Europe and the USA
17.5 UHF or 13.56 MHz around the World and in Europe
17.6 Appendix: The Main Standards and Regulations
Part Five Components for Tags and Base Stations
18 RFID Tags
18.1 Some General Remarks
18.2 Summary of Operating Principles
18.3 The Technology of Tags
18.4 Antennas for Tags
19 The Base Station
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Examples of Base Station Hardware Architecture
19.3 Examples of Products
19.4 Antennas for Base Stations
19.5 Some Concluding Remarks
20 Conformity, Performance and Methods for Evaluating Tags and Systems
20.1 Official Measurement and Test Methods
20.2 Required Parameters
20.3 Simple Methods of Measurement
20.4 By Way of Conclusion
Useful Addresses, Component Manufacturers and Further Reading


"This comprehensive reference is ideal for computer and electronics engineers working on the design and development of RFID systems for the electronics industry, as well as for those in other industries such as automotive, security and transport, who want to implement RFID into their business.". (More RFID, 28 November 2010)
EAN: 9780470034149
ISBN: 0470034149
Untertitel: Sprache: Englisch.
Erscheinungsdatum: Februar 2010
Seitenanzahl: 527 Seiten
Format: gebunden
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