BeschreibungUnderscoring the multidisciplinary nature of polymer science, this third edition provides a broad-based and comprehensive text at an introductory, reader-friendly level. With nearly 50 percent new or updated material, this edition presents new polymerization methods, characterization techniques, and applications in electronic, biological, and medical settings. new topics include controlled radical polymerization, novel polymer architectures, chain dimension, morphology, determining molecular weights, metallocene catalysts, copolymers, and rheological behavior. The book features real world examples, new chapter problems, and a solutions manual.
InhaltsverzeichnisIntroduction Birth of a Concept Some Basic Definitions Synthesis of Polymers Nomenclature Average Molar Masses and Distributions Size and Shape Configuration The Glass Transition Temperature Tg and the Melting Temperature Tm Elastomers, Fibers, and Plastics Fiber-Forming Polymers Plastics Thermosetting Polymers Elastomers Step-Growth Polymerization General Reactions Reactivity of Functional Groups Carothers Equation Control of the Molar Mass Stoichiometric Control of Mn Kinetics Molar Mass Distribution in Linear Systems Average Molar Masses Characteristics of Step-Growth Polymerization Typical Step-Growth Reactions Ring Formation Nonlinear Step-Growth Reactions Statistical Derivation Comparison with Experiment Polyurethanes Thermosetting Polymers Free-Radical Addition Polymerization Addition Polymerization Choice of Initiators Free-Radical Polymerization Initiators Chain Growth Termination Steady-State Kinetics High-Conversion Bulk Polymerizations Chain Transfer Inhibitors and Retarders Activation Energies and the Effect of Temperature Thermodynamics of Radical Polymerization Heats of Polymerization Polymerization Processes Features of Free-Radical Polymerization Controlled Radical Polymerization Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerizations Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP Reverse ATRP Degenerative Chain Transfer Reaction (DT) Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) CRP of Vinyl Chloride The Kinetics of CRP Processes Application to Experimental Data Ionic Polymerization General Characteristics Cationic Polymerization Propagation by Cationic Chain Carriers Termination General Kinetic Scheme Energetics of Cationic Polymerization Telechelic Polymers via Cationic Polymerization Cationic Ring Opening Polymerization Stable Carbocations Anionic Polymerization Living Polymers Kinetics and Molar Mass Distribution in Living Anionic Systems Metal Alkyl Initiators Solvent and Gegen Ion Effects Anionic Ring-opening Polymerization Linear Copolymers and Other Architectures General Characteristics Composition Drift The Copolymer Equation Monomer Reactivity Ratios Reactivity Ratios and Copolymer Structure Monomer Reactivities and Chain Initiation Influence of Structural Effects on Monomer Reactivity Ratios The Q-e Scheme Alternating Copolymers Block Copolymer Synthesis Graft Copolymer Synthesis Statistical and Gradient Copolymers Complex Molecular Architectures Dendrimers Polymer Stereochemistry Architecture Orientation Configuration Geometric Isomerism Conformation of Stereoregular Polymers Factors Influencing Stereoregulation Homogeneous Stereospecific Cationic Polymerizations Homogeneous Stereoselective Anionic Polymerizations Homogeneous Diene Polymerization Summary Polymerization Reactions Initiated by Metal Catalysts and Transfer Reactions Polymerization Using Ziegler-Natta Catalysts Nature of Catalyst Nature of Active Centers Bimetallic Mechanism Monometallic Mechanism Stereoregulation Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) Monocyclic Monomers Bicyclo- and Tricyclomonomers Copolyalkenamers Living Systems Group Transfer Polymerization (GTP) Aldol Group Transfer Polymerization Metallocene Catalysts Concluding Remarks Polymers in Solution Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions Ideal Mixtures of Small Molecules Nonideal Solutions Flory-Huggins Theory: Entropy of Mixing Enthalpy Change on Mixing Free Energy of Mixing Limitations of the Flory-Huggins Theory Phase Equilibria Flory-Krigbaum Theory Location of the Theta Temperature Lower Critical Solution Temperatures Solubility and the Cohesive Energy Density Polymer-Polymer Mixtures Kinetics of Phase Separation Polymer Characterization - Molar Masses Introduction Molar Masses, Molecular Weights, and SI Units Number-Average Molar Mass Mn End-Group Assay Colligative Properties of Solutions Osmotic Pressure Light Scattering Dynamic Light Scattering Viscosity Gel Permeation Chromatography Maldi Polymer Characterization - Chain Dimensions, Structures, and Morphology Average Chain Dimensions Freely Jointed Chain Model Short-range Effects Chain Stiffness Treatment of Dilute Solution Data Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Infrared Spectroscopy Thermal Analysis Wide-Angle and Small-Angle Scattering Microscopy The Crystalline State and Partially Ordered Structures Introduction Mechanism of Crystallization Temperature and Growth Rate Melting Thermodynamic Parameters Crystalline Arrangement of Polymers Morphology and Kinetics Morphology Kinetics of Crystallization Block Copolymers Historical Development of Polymer Liquid Crystals Liquid Crystalline Phases Identification of the Mesophases Lyotropic Main-Chain Liquid Crystalline Polymers Thermotropic Main-Chain Liquid Crystal Polymers Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Polymers Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystal Polymers The Glassy State and Glass Transition The Amorphous State The Glassy State Relaxation Processes in the Glassy State Glass Transition Region Theoretical Treatments Dependence of Tg on Molar Mass Structural Relaxation and Physical Aging Rheology and Mechanical Properties Introduction to Rheology The Five Regions of Viscoelastic Behavior The Viscous Region Mechanical Properties Mechanical Models Describing Viscoelasticity Linear Viscoelastic Behavior of Amorphous Polymers Dynamic Mechanical and Dielectric Thermal Analysis Time-Temperature Superposition Principle Dynamic Viscosity A Molecular Theory for Viscoelasticity The Reptation Model The Elastomeric State General Introduction Experimental Vulcanization Properties of Elastomers Thermodynamic Aspects of Rubberlike Elasticity Nonideal Elastomers Distribution Function for Polymer Conformation Statistical Approach Swelling of Elastomeric Networks Network Defects Resilience of Elastomers Structure-Property Relations General Considerations Control of Tm and Tg Relation between Tm andTg Random Copolymers Dependence of Tm andTg on Copolymer Composition Block Copolymers Plasticizers Crystallinity and Mechanical Response Application to Fibers, Elastomers, and Plastics Fibers Aromatic Polyamides Polyethylene Elastomers and Cross-Linked Networks Plastics High-temperature Speciality Polymers Carbon Fibers Concluding Remarks Polymers for the Electronics Industry Introduction Polymer Resists for IC Fabrication The Lithographic Process Polymer Resists Photolithography Electron Beam Sensitive Resists X-ray and Ion Sensitive Resists Electroactive Polymers Conduction Mechanisms Preparation of Conductive Polymers Polyacetylene Poly(P-phenylene) Polyheterocyclic Systems Polyaniline Poly(Phenylene Sulfide) Poly(1,6-heptadiyne) Applications Photonic Applications Light-Emitting Polymers Nonlinear Optics Langmuir-Blodgett Films Optical Information Storage Thermorecording on Liquid Crystalline Polymers Index
Untertitel: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials. 3 Rev ed. 268 black & white illustrations, 96 black & white tables. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Taylor & Francis Inc
Erscheinungsdatum: Juli 2007
Seitenanzahl: 520 Seiten