EBOOK

Questioning the Universe: Concepts in Physics


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Dezember 2008

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

Written for the nonscientist, this physics primer tells readers the story of what we have found out about nature so far and how we have done it. It delves into basic laws regarding motion, fundamental forces, electromagnetism, and light; introduces major theories pondered by scientists, including relativity, quantum mechanics, and particle physics; describes the key role played by that elemental building block, the atom; and discusses the evolution of the universe. While it requires only the most minimal math, it does require enough of a sense of curiosity to open one's self to consider what are the factors that keep our universe so orderly, operational, and awesomely beautiful.


Inhaltsverzeichnis

UNITS AND POWERS OF TEN



PHYSICS AND ITS METHODOLOGY




What Is Physics?



Methodology



The First Scientist



Why Do You Believe?



Back to the Questions



How Do We Answer the
Questions?



The Need to Be
Quantitative



Theories



Models



Aesthetic
Judgments




MOTION




Relating the Variables of Motion



Graphs of One-Dimensional Motion



Constant Speed



Constant Acceleration



Two-Dimensional Motion



FORCES



The Fundamental Forces



A Specific Force Law: Newtonian Gravity



Weight



How Does Force Affect Motion? Newton's Second
Law



Newton, the Apple, and the Moon



Combining Two Laws



The Mass of the Earth



Newton's First Law



What and Where Is the
Force?




Newton's Third Law




How Does a Horse Pull a
Wagon?



How Can We Walk?



ELECTROMAGNETISM




The Electric Force Law



Unifying Electricity and Magnetism



Ampere's Law



Faraday's Law



The Lorentz Force



Back to Ampere's
Law




Where Are the Moving
Charges?



THE
FIELD CONCEPT



What Is the Connection?




Action at a Distance



Is This a Legitimate
Explanation?



The Field Concept



How Does This Help
Explain Noncontact Forces?



Thinking Like a
Physicist



Is There a Way to Tell
the Difference?



Understanding the Time
Delay



The Speed and Identity
of the Kink



Back to Contact Forces



THE
CHARACTER OF NATURAL LAWS



Causality




The Prime Directive



Symmetry



Symmetry and the Laws of Nature



Space Translation
Symmetry



Time Translation
Symmetry




Time Reversal (Reflection)
Symmetry



Matter-Antimatter
Symmetry (Matter Reflection)




Space Reflection
Symmetry (Parity)



CONSERVATION
LAWS




Conservation of Momentum




Conservation of Energy



The Different Forms of
Energy



Conversion of Energy



A Specific Example: The
Roller Coaster



A Nonconservation Law: The Second Law of
Thermodynamics



THE
HISTORY OF THE ATOM



The Greek Model



Thomson's "Plum Pudding" Model



The Rutherford Experiment



The Planetary Model




What Do We Do Now?



The Atom Today



The Electron Volt: A Useful Energy Unit



THE
NUCLEUS



Nuclear Properties



Why Neutrons?



Nuclear Decays



Alpha Decay



Beta Decay



Gamma Decay



Half-Life and Carbon Dating



The Full Beta Decay Story



The Prediction



The Experimental
Results



What Do We Do Now?



Look Closely at the
Theory



Look Closely at the
Experimental Results



A Possible Explanation



THE
NATURE OF LIGHT



Properties of Particles




Properties of Waves



Wave Vocabulary



Is Light Made Up of Waves or Particles?



Back to Diffraction



Why the Sky Is Blue



THE
THEORY OF RELATIVITY



Frames of Reference and Relative Speeds



Galilean Relativity



Maxwell and the Ether



The Speed of Waves



The Ether




The Michelson Morley Experiment




An Analogy: Boats in a
River



The Real Experiment



The Lorentz Contraction




Another Crazy Idea




Assumptions We Take for Granted



The Postulates of Special Relativity



Some Interesting Facts
about Einstein and the



Birth of Relativity



Consequences of the Postulates of
Relativity




The Relativity of
Simultaneity



Time Dilation




The Light Clock




Useful Definitions




Length Contraction




Length and Lorentz Contraction




E = mc2 and All That



Back to Addition of Speeds



The Car in the Garage Paradox



The Twin Paradox and Space Travel



Relativity and You




QUANTUM
MECHANICS



Max Planck and the Beginnings of Quantum
Theory




The Photoelectric Effect




The Bohr Atom



de Broglie Waves



Time to Stop and Catch Our Breath




The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle



The Schrodinger Equation: An Equation for the
Waves



Does God Play Dice?



THE
STANDARD MODEL OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS



The Basic Ideas of the Standard Model




The Unification of Forces




Bosons: The Particles Associated with Forces



Electroweak Unification




The Unification of Matter




Two Classes of Matter
Particles



Similarities



Differences



More about Quarks




More about Leptons



A Mystery




Particle Flowchart




COSMOLOGY




The Expansion of the Universe



Measuring Speeds Using
the Doppler Effect



Measuring
Distances




Nearby Stars



More Distant Stars:
Standard Candles



Light from the Big Bang: CMB Radiation



The Evolution of the Universe



The Planck Time



The GUT Time



The Disappearance of
Antimatter




Two Sticky Problems and
a Solution



The Solution: Inflation




The Electroweak Time



The Formation of
Particles




The Formation of
Nuclei




The Formation of Atoms



The Formation of Stars
and Galaxies



Dark Matter



Dark Energy








EPILOGUE




SUGGESTED
FURTHER READINGS



INDEX



Each chapter ends with a Guide to Key Ideas and



Questions/Problems

Portrait

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

Pressestimmen

"I have been teaching introductory physics for non-science majors for a long time and have never been satisfied with the books on the market. Most of these texts are just watered-down versions of the general physics texts for science students. When I read through [these] three books, I really do get a sense that the authors have attempted to create book[s] that [are] somehow different from the normal algebra problem-based texts. I will be using Questioning the Universe: Concepts in Physics this fall for the science portion of a Science Fiction Learning Community. In the spring, I will be teaching a physics/art history hybrid course and will be using either Superstrings and Other Things: A Guide to Physics, Second Edition or From Atoms to Galaxies: A Conceptual Physics Approach to Scientific Awareness. ! both are great books. ! I really feel that for conceptual physics courses, CRC Press currently has the three strongest titles.aI anticipate a fun teaching experience while using these texts and hope to use them again in the future." --Steve Zides, Wofford College, Spartanburg, South Carolina, USA WINNER OF 2009 CHOICE AWARD FOR BEST ACADEMIC TITLE! "This introductory physics book is quite different (in a positive way) from all of the other similar works this reviewer has seen. In just over 200 pages and 15 chapters, Sadoff delves into just about every area of physics, ranging from basic Newtonian mechanics to fields, light, nuclear physics, relativity, and quantum mechanics ! he successfully ties the various subjects together." --J.R. Kraus, University of Denver, CHOICE, August 2009, Vol. 46, No. 1
EAN: 9781420082586
ISBN: 1420082582
Untertitel: New. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: CRC PR INC
Erscheinungsdatum: Dezember 2008
Seitenanzahl: 224 Seiten
Format: kartoniert
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