Pharma-Ecology: The Occurrence and Fate of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment

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August 2008



Pharmaceuticals and personal care products--we can't live without them. Can the environment survive with them?
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are increasingly being recognized as micropollutants. In this context, pharmaceutical products encompass a diverse range of drugs used to treat various illnesses, and personal care products include everyday items such as soaps, fragrances, cleaning agents, disinfectants, and similar products. Written for professionals from different backgrounds, Pharma-Ecology bridges the knowledge and language gap and critically examines the issue of PPCP micropollutants and how to best minimize their impact on the environment. Organized systematically, it:
* Presents a range of pharmaceutical compounds categorized by mode of action and common usage, displaying the volumes (or number of prescriptions) that are dispersed
* Discusses the detection of PPCPs in the environment using instrumentation and bioassay techniques, including microarrays
* Covers the occurrences of PPCPs in aquatic systems, sediments, soil, and aerial environments
* Considers the persistence and degradation of PPCPs in the environment, and links pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics with the kinetics of PPCPs in the environment
* Explores engineering and treatment techniques that could minimize the impact of PPCPs in the environment
* Includes numerous tables and figures that illustrate information
This is an enlightening reference for engineers, toxicologists, ecologists, micro-biologists, and chemists involved in pollution and environmental analysis; policy-makers; professionals in federal and state regulatory agencies; and pharmaceutical professionals. It is also an excellent text for undergraduate and graduate students in related fields.


Chapter 1 Usage of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products for Different Therapeutic End Points in Relation to Environment.
1.1 Personal Care Products.
1.2 Pharmaceutical Compounds.
1.3 Conclusion.
Chapter 2 Detection and Occurrence of PPCPs in the Environment.
2.1 Detection of PPCPs in the Environment.
2.2 Occurrence of PPCPs in Various Environments.
2.3 Excretion as a Driver of Pharmaceutical Occurrence in the Environment.
Chapter 3 Ecopharmacokinetics and Ecopharmacodynamics.
3.1 Overview of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics.
3.2 Degradation of PPCPs in the Environment.
3.3 Role of Physicochemical Factors in the Fate of PPCPs in the Environment.
3.4 Conclusion.
Chapter 4 Ecotoxicity of PPCPs.
4.1 Conventional Assessment of the Risk.
4.2 Ecological Impact of PPCPs on Microorganisms and Microbial Processes.
4.3 Effects of PPCPs on Invertebrates.
4.4 Ecotoxicity of PPCPs on Aquatic Organisms.
4.5 Ecotoxicity of PPCPs on Terrestrial Wildlife.
4.6 Livestock and Human Health.
4.7 Ecotoxicity of PPCPs on Vegetation.
4.8 General Considerations in Long-Term PPCP Toxicity.
Chapter 5 Technologies for Removing PPCPs.
5.1 Conventional Treatment Systems.
5.2 Advanced Treatment Processes.
Chapter 6 Future Needs.
6.1 Improving Assessment of the Risks from PPCPs in the Environment.
6.2 Effect of Mixtures.
6.3 Effects of Chronic Exposure to Low PPCP Doses.
6.4 Formulation and Regimen Design Affecting PPCP Bioavailability, Excretion, and Sorption.
6.5 Use of Quantitative Structural Activity Relationships in Ecotoxicology.
6.6 Use of Genomics in Bioassay Studies.
6.7 Social Responsibility, Legislation, and Policy.
6.8 Need to Revisit the Drug Approval and Advertising Process.
6.9 Use of Prescription Records for Mapping PPCPs.


Patrick K. Jjemba, PhD, is a Senior Research Analyst for Innovation and Technology with American Water. Previously, he was a research associate in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Cincinnati. Dr. Jjemba has received grants from the NIEHS, World Bank, and IAEA and has authored several peer-reviewed papers, including two reviews covering pharmaceuticals as environmental pollutants.


"This book will be a valuable resource to an academic library, either graduate or undergraduate, and provides numerous examples for instructors of environmental chemistry and health-related chemistry courses." ( Journal of Chemical Education , February 2010) "How is this book different from others on the topic? Jjemba is the sole author, providing comprehensive coverage of the various PPCP aspects in a logical order and in a consistent style of presentation." ( Environmental Health Perspectives , April 2009) "I am pleased to recommend most heartily, Jjemba's unique, valuable reference source to a broad audience of ecologists, engineers, microbiologists, pharmacists, toxicologists, chemists, physicians, and veterinarians involved in pollution and environmental analysis as well as workers in agriculture and health care. Policymakers and professionals in federal and state regulatory agencies will also find it useful. It may also serve as a textbook or as supplementary reading for undergraduate and graduate students in related fields ... he has eminently succeeded in achieving his goal." ( Chemical & Engineering News , December 15, 2008)
EAN: 9780470046302
ISBN: 0470046309
Untertitel: Sprache: Englisch.
Erscheinungsdatum: August 2008
Seitenanzahl: 314 Seiten
Format: gebunden
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