The Meaning of Sociology
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BeschreibungThis classic introduction to sociology as a "perspective" gives students a sound understanding of key sociological concepts as well as insight into how sociologists view society and human beings. Clearly written and organized, it shows students how the various aspects of sociology fit together--and are relevant to their own lives.
InhaltsverzeichnisBrief Table of Content Preface Part I: The Nature of Sociology 1 The Discipline of Sociology 2 Sociology as a Perspective: How Sociologists Think 3 Humans Are Embedded in Social Organization 4 Social Structure Part II: The Nature of Social Organization 5 Inequality in Society 6 Culture 7 Social Institutions 8 Organizations, Societies, and Globalization (Written by Joel Charon and Lee Vigilant) PART III: ORDER AND POWER IN SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 9 Social Order, Social Control, and Social Deviance 10 Social Power PART IV: THE DYNAMIC NATURE OF HUMAN SOCIAL LIFE 11 Symbols, Self, and Mind: Our Active Nature 12 Social Change 13 The Family in Society 14 Religion, Society, and the Individual (Written by Lee Vigilant and Joel Charon) PART V: CONCLUSION 15 The Meaning and Uses of Sociology Index COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Part I: The Nature of Sociology Chapter 1: The Discipline of Sociology What Is Sociology? Sociology Is an Academic Discipline Sociology Focuses on Our Social World Sociology Asks Three Questions Sociology Focuses on Five Topics Sociology Is a Scientific Discipline The Meaning of Sociology: A Summary The Beginnings of Sociology Science Was an Inspiration ! And So Were the Problems of Industrialization ! And the Need to Understand Revolution ! As Well as Experiences with Other Peoples and Societies ! And a Climate for New Ideas Arose The Development of Sociology Conclusion and Summary Questions to Consider Recommended Reading Chapter 2: Sociology as a Perspective: How Sociologists Think 27 Humans Are Social Beings 29 Humans Exist Within Social Patterns 31 Humans Are Socialized 33 Durkheim: The Study of Suicide 36 Durkheim's Theory 37 Durkheim's Evidence 38 Extending His Theory 40 Durkheim's Influence 42 Sociology: A Summary 44 Questions to Consider 45 Recommended Reading 45 Chapter 3: Humans Are Embedded in Social Organization 49 Organization Begins with Social Action 51 Mutual Social Action Is Social Interaction 53 Social Organization Is Patterned Social Interaction 56 The Forms of Social Organization 59 Dyads Are Twos 59 Groups Are More 59 Formal Organizations Write Down Their Rules 62 Communities Are Self-Sufficient Units of Organization 64 Societies Are the Most Inclusive Form of Organization 65 Social Organization Seems to Sit Right on Top of Us 66 Questions to Consider 69 Recommended Reading 69 Chapter 4: Social Structure 74 We All Fill Positions in Social Structure 75 Roles Are Attached to Positions 77 Roles Are Not as Simple as a Script in a Play 80 Status Positions Form Our Identities 84 Positions Are Unequal 87 Unequal Power 88 Unequal Prestige 89 Unequal Privileges 90 Our Positions Also Give Us Our Perspectives 91 Summary: The Meaning and Importance of Structure 93 Questions to Consider 94 Recommended Reading 94 Part II: The Nature of Social Organization Chapter 5: Inequality in Society 99 The Meaning of Social Class 103 Gender and Race 106 Class, Race, and Gender Structures Are Special Social Structures 107 Social Stratification Affects Placement in Other Social Organizations 109 The Origin of Social Stratification Systems 111 Social Mobility 113 Structural Change 114 Marx's View of Social Stratification 116 Summary 118 Questions to Consider 119 Recommended Reading 119 Chapter 6: Culture 129 Culture Is a Shared Perspective on the World 130 Culture Is Learned 131 Culture Is a Social Inheritance 132 Culture Is a Body of "Truth" 134 Culture Is a Set of Values 136 Values Are Reflected in Action 138 There Is an American Value System, but It Is Complex and Often Inconsistent 139 Culture Is a Set of Goals 141 Culture Is a Set of Norms 142 Culture, Subculture, and Counterculture 144 Culture Is Important 146 The Real Significance of Culture: The Social Construction of Reality 147 Summary 148 Questions to Consider 148 Recommended Reading 149 Chapter 7: Social Institutions 154 Institutions Are Social Patterns 155 Social Institutions Are the Most Central Grooves in Society 156 Institutions Are the Central Ways a Society Functions and Solves Its Ongoing Problems 156 Institutions Are Widely Accepted and Deeply Entrenched 158 Social Institutions Are Real Forces Working on Actors 161 The Meaning of Institutions: A Summary 162 Institutions Are Important 165 Institutionalization and Deinstitutionalization 166 The Rejection of Social Institutions 167 Summary 169 Questions to Consider 170 Recommended Reading 170 Chapter 8: Organizations, Societies, and Globalization (Written by Joel Charon and Lee Vigilant) 175 Social Organizations Influence Each Other 176 Society in the World Order 179 Karl Marx: A Future Worldwide Capitalist Order 179 Immanuel Wallerstein: Core Societies, Semi-Perpheral Socities, and Peripheral Societies 180 Globalization in the Twenty-First Century: Economic, Cultural, and Political 181 The Meaning of Globalization 181 Economic Globalization 183 Cultural Globalization 184 Political Globalization 185 Criticisms of Globalization 186 Conclusion and Summary 187 Questions to Consider 188 Recommended Reading 189 PART III: ORDER AND POWER IN SOCIAL ORGANIZATION Chapter 9: Social Order, Social Control, and Social Deviance 191 Social Order Is Established Through Structure and Culture 194 Social Order Depends on Working Institutions 197 Social Order Depends on Socialization 198 Loyalty to the Organization Is the Fifth Foundation for Social Order 202 Social Controls Contribute to Social Order 205 Social Deviance 207 Summary 211 Questions to Consider 211 Recommended Reading 212 Chapter 10: Social Power 217 The Meaning of Social Power 218 Three Definitions of Power 218 Resources and Social Power 219 Influence, Control, and Powerlessness 220 Authority 221 The Inevitability of Inequality in Organization 223 Class Position and Power 225 Organization as Power 226 Three Theories of Power 227 Pluralism 228 The Power Elite 230 The Corporate Elite 231 Summary 233 Questions to Consider 234 Recommended Reading 235 PART IV: THE DYNAMIC NATURE OF HUMAN SOCIAL LIFE Chapter 11: Symbols, Self, and Mind: Our Active Nature 240 Individuality and Freedom 242 How Can We Explain Individuality? 245 The Origin of Human Freedom 246 Human Beings Are Symbol Users 247 The Meaning of Symbols 247 The Importance of Symbols 249 Symbols and Freedom 250 We Possess Self and Mind 252 Summary 255 Questions to Consider 256 Recommended Reading 256 Chapter 12: Social Change 259 Individual Change and Social Change 260 Acts of Individuals and Groups Change Organization 262 Social Conflict Changes Organization 266 External Social Organizations and Environments Change Social Organization 268 Technology Changes Social Organization 271 Changes in Population Change Social Organization 274 Change in Social Patterns Causes Change in Other Social Patterns 276 Summary 279 Questions to Consider 280 Recommended Reading 280 Chapter 13: The Family in Society 28 The Importance of the Family to Sociology 286 Meaning of the Family 288 Is the Family Universal? 288 Why Is Definition Difficult? 289 The Family: A Primary Group in a Household 289 The Family: The Socialization Function 290 The Family: Economic and Social Functions 291 The Family: The Social Class Placement Function 291 The Family: The Expressive Function 292 The Meaning of the Family: A Summary 293 Marriage as an Institution 293 The Changing Structure of Marriage 295 Marital Satisfaction 297 Divorce 299 Children and Socialization in the Family 300 Individual Choice and the Changing Family 302 Summary 304 Questions to Consider 306 Recommended Reading 306 Chapter 14: Religion, Society, and the Individual (Written by Lee Vigilant and Joel Charon) 309 The Industrial Revolution: Religion, and the Beginning of Sociology 310 Auguste Comte (1798-1857): The Death of the Sacred 311 Ferdinand Tonnies (1855-1936): Religion and Community 313 Karl Marx (1818-1883): Religion as the Opiate of the Masses 314 Emile Durkheim (1858-1917: Meaning and Function of Religion 316 Religion and the Creation of the Sacred 316 Religion's Creation and Function Is Social 317 Religion Creates and Upholds the Morality of Society 318 Religion Is Important for the Individual 318 The Future of Society 319 Max Weber (1864-1920): Religion, the Rationalization of Life, and Social Change 319 The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism: Religious Thought Influences Economic Action 320 Rationalization of Life and the Future of Religion 321 Charismatic Authority and the Role of Religion in Social Change 322 Weber: A Summary 323 The Heritage of Sociology from the Early Sociologists: Conclusion 323 The Study of Religion in the Late-Modern World 324 Secularization: Is Religion Becoming Less Important Today? 324 Defenders of the Secularization Thesis 324 Critics of the Secularization Thesis 325 The Role of Fundamentalism 327 Organized Religion and Individual Spirituality 329 Summary: The Sociology of Religion 330 Questions to Consider 331 Recommended Reading 333 PART V: CONCLUSION Chapter 15: The Meaning and Uses of Sociology 336 The Uses of Sociology 341 Questions to Consider 343 Recommended Reading 344 Index 346
Untertitel: Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: PRENTICE HALL
Erscheinungsdatum: Juni 2008
Seitenanzahl: 230 Seiten