EBOOK

Sweet Reason: A Field Guide to Modern Logic

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Juni 2008

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

Sweet Reason is a unique introductory logic text that covers both the basic rudiments of formal and informal logic as well as the real world where the discipline of logic adds substance and meaning to human discourse. As the text alternately discusses, instructs, questions, teases and challenges, readers will find themselves absorbing the fundamentals of the discipline, becoming fluent in the language of logic, understanding how logic works in the real world, and enjoying logic's ability to entertain, surprise, discover, and enlighten.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Preface for the General Reader xv Preface for Logic Teachers: How to Use This Book in Logic Courses xix Introduction 1 Formal Logic 1 A Taste of Logic Introducing the Language of Logic 8 Paradox 17 Negation 17 Quiz 24 2 Everything All at Once and a Warning Truth and Falsity 26 Logical Form: The Key to Logic 31 Argument Form: The Key to Reasoning 35 Paradox and W.S. Gilbert 39 The Orb and Post 41 Paradoxes and Psychology 42 The Title of the Section on Self-Reference 44 How to Argue 53 Rebuttal 59 Law Boards: Reading Comprehension 64 The Digestor's Digest, page 1 72 Exam Warning I 73 Talking Heads 74 3 Statement Logic, Formal Languages, and Informal Arguments Formal Languages: Sentential 76 Formal Languages: Variations on Sentential 84 Logical Theory for Statement Logic 90 Some Basic Tautologies and Implications 93 Buffalo Buffalo Buffalo 99 Artificial and Natural Languages 100 Rewrite Rules and Finite Automata 104 Loofah Loofah Loofah 109 Conclusions 115 Supporting Statements 115 Relevance 119 Premises 124 Cathy has breakfast 128 The Digestor's Digest, page 2 130 Exam Warning II 131 A Nonlogical Puzzle 132 Self-Referential Puzzles 132 4 Valid Arguments, Convincing Arguments, and Punk Logic Valid Argument Forms 136 Formalizing for Validity 138 A Shortcut for Checking Arguments 142 Formalizing English 144 Miniac 153 Flipism 156 Sets 157 Logic Circuits 162 Bertrand the First 165 Criticizing Arguments 165 Writing Arguments 169 A Good Paragraph 173 Cathy Goes to War 176 The Digestor's Digest, page 3 177 Exam Warning III 178 The Family Reunion 179 Punk Logic 181 5 Predicates, Programs, and Antique Logic Predicate Languages 184 Variations on the Theme of Predicate Languages 189 From Statement Logic to Predicate Logic 193 Interpreting Predicate Logic 196 Logical Theory for Predicate Logic 201 Logical Laws: Basic Valid WFFS and Implications 204 Symbolization in Predicate Logic 218 Poles and Norwegians 218 Games 220 BASIC 223 Binary 228 TRIVIAL 231 Algorithm 236 The Busy Beaver 238 Syllogisms 238 Fallacies 241 Rabbinic Logic 247 Cathy Meets God 251 The Digestor's Digest, page 4 253 Exam Warning IV 254 The Game of Logic 255 The Sorites or Lewis Carroll 258 6 Deduction, Infinity, and a Haircut Main Connectives 264 Deduction 266 Hypothetical Reasoning: Deduction from Assumptions 273 Proving Validity 279 Proving Invalidity 187 Formalizing for Validity in Predicate Logic 292 In Hell with Raymond Smellyan 294 No (Certain) Escape 298 Infinite Tasks 302 Infinity: Potential and Actual 306 Proof by Contradiction 308 Anita Hill and Arlen Specter 312 Bush, Clinton, and Perot 316 The Adventure of the Dancing Man 321 Commercial Logic I 323 The Digestor's Digest, page 5 324 Exam Warning V 325 The Barbershop Problem 326 English 254 329 7 Symbolic Sophistication, Induction, and Business Logic Quantifiers and Arithmetic 334 Functions 337 "The": Russell's Theory of Definite Descriptions 343 Measuring Uncertainty 351 Bayes' Law and Sherlock Holmes 354 Inductive Logic 358 Logic Programming 362 The W-4 371 Canadian Customs 376 The Logic Tea 377 Commercial Logic II 383 The Digestor's Digest, page 6 384 Exam Warning VI 385 Lewis Carroll's "what the tortoise said to Achilles" 387 The Far Side 391 8 Completeness, Disbelief, Debates, and Dinner Geometry 394 The Completeness Theorem 399 Axiomatization and Boolean Algebra 404 Believing and Knowing 411 The Law of the Excluded Middle 415 From Puzzle to Paradox 420 More Bush, Clinton, and Perot 429 Presidential Debates 435 Parliamentary Debates 439 Commercial Logic III 442 The Digestor's Digest, page 7 442 Exam Warning VII 443 Peano's Dots 444 Charles Dana Gibson 445 The Family Reunion II: The Women 446 9 Paradox, Impossibility, and the Law Where do Numbers Come From? 450 The Paradox of the Heap 458 Russell's Paradox and Frege's Mistake 468 Life 474 Hypergame 480 The Busy Beaver is not Computable 481 Impossibility 483 Quayle, Gore, and Stockdale 486 Law Boards: Logical Reasoning 491 Law Boards: Analytical Reasoning 499 Law Boards: Rules and Disputes 506 The Digestor's Digest, page 8 513 Exam Warning VIII 514 Quiz on Polish Notation 515 Tom and Jim's Excellent Adventure 516 The Last Word 517 Notes, References, Hints, and Some Answers 1 A Taste of Logic 519 2 Everything All at Once and a Warning 526 3 Statement Logic, Formal Languages, and Informal Arguments 531 4 Valid Arguments, Convincing Arguments, and Punk Logic 546 5 Predicates, Programs, and Antique Logic 562 6 Deduction, Infinity, and a Haircut 580 7 Symbolic Sophistication, Induction, and Business Logic 601 8 Completeness, Disbelieve, Debates, and Dinner 613 9 Paradox, Impossibility, and the Law 624 Index 639
EAN: 9780470414187
ISBN: 0470414189
Untertitel: Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: JOHN WILEY & SONS INC
Erscheinungsdatum: Juni 2008
Seitenanzahl: 666 Seiten
Format: kartoniert
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