Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease
BeschreibungThe aim of Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease is to provide comprehensive information regarding adipose tissue, its physiological functions and its role in disease. This volume contains a collection of information spanning the entire range of adipose tissue studies, from basic anatomical and physiological research to epidemiology and clinical aspects, in one place. This book is indispensable for basic researchers and clinicians interested in the fields of obesity, metabolic diseases, inflammation and immunity, and specialists in each of the pathologies associated with obesity. TOC:Introduction.- Adipose Tissue: Structure and Function.- The Adipose Organ.- Metabolism of White Adipose Tissue.- Leptin.- Adiponectin.- Adipokines as Regulators of Immunity and Inflammation.- Vasoactive Factors and Inflammatory Mediators Produced in Adipose Tissue.- Regulation of the Immune Response by Leptin.- Leptin in Autoimmune Disease.- Leptin and Gastrointestinal Inflammation.- Adiponectin and Inflammation.- Interactions between Adipocytes and Immune Cells.- Macrophages, Adipocytes and Obesity.- Interactions of Adipose and Lymphoid Tissues.- Adipose Tissue and Mast Cells: Adipokines as Yin-Yang Modulators of Inflammation.- Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue.- The Obesity Epidemics.- Environmental Aspects of Obesity.- The Genetics of Obesity: Five Fundamental Problems with the Famine Hypothesis.- Developmental Perspectives on the Origins of Obesity.- The Epidemiology of Obesity.- Adipose Tissue and Disease.- Inherited and Acquired.- Lipodystrophies: Disorders of Adipose Tissue Development, Differentiation and Death.- Mechanisms of Cachexia.- Adipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance.- Adipokines in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.- Adiposity and Cancer.- Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease.- Obesity and Asthma.- Adiposity and Kidney Disease.- Obesity and Joint Disease.- Effect of Weight Loss on Disease.
InhaltsverzeichnisAdipose tissue and adipokines in health and disease
Editors: Giamila Fantuzzi and Theodore Mazzone
Series Editor Page
Andrew P. Goldberg and Susan K. Fried
Giamila Fantuzzi and Theodore Mazzone
Adipose tissue: structure and function
The adipose organ
Metabolism of white adipose tissue
Malaka B. Jackson and Rexford S. Ahima
Aimin Xu, Yu Wang and Karen S L Lam
Adipokines as regulators of immunity and inflammation
Vasoactive factors and inflammatory mediators produced in adipose tissue
Regulation of the immune response by leptin
Víctor Sánchez-Margalet, Patricia Fernandez-Riejos, Carmen González-Yanes, Souad Najib, Consuelo Martín-Romero and José Santos-Alvarez
Leptin in autoimmune disease
Leptin and gastrointestinal inflammation
Arvind Batra and Britta Siegmund
Adiponectin and inflammation
Interactions between adipocytes and immune cells
Macrophages, adipocytes and obesity
Anthony W. Ferrante, Jr
Interactions of adipose and lymphoid tissues
Caroline M. Pond
Adipose tissue and mast cells: adipokines as yin-yang modulators of inflammation
George N. Chaldakov, Anton B. Tonchev, Nese Tuncel, Pepa Atannasova and Luigi Aloe
Bone marrow adipose tissue
Patrick Laharrague and Louis Castella
The obesity epidemics
Environmental aspects of obesity
Lisa Diewald, Myles S. Faith M and Meredith Dolan
The genetics of obesity: five fundamental problems with the famine hypothesis
John R. Speakman
Developmental perspectives on the origins of obesity
Cristopher W. Kuzawa,Peter D. Gluckman and Mark A. Hanson
The epidemiology of obesity
Carol A. Braunschweig
Adipose tissue and disease
Inherited and acquired lipodystrophies: disorders of adipose tissue development, differentiation and death
Vinaja Simha and Anil Agarwal
Mechanisms of cachexia
Robert H Mak and Wai W Cheung
Adipose tissue and insulin resistance
Stephen E. Borst
Adipokines in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Ancha Baranova and Zobair M. Younossi
Adiposity and cancer
Eugenia E. Calle
Obesity and cardiovascular disease
Alison M. Morris, Paul Poirier and Robert H. Eckel
Obesity and asthma
Adiposity and kidney disease
Srinivasan Beddhu and Bonnie Ching-Ha Kwan
Obesity and joint disease
Andrew J Teichtahl, Anita E Wluka and Flavia M. Cicuttini
Effect of weight loss on disease
Sergio Josè Bardaro, Dennis Hong and Lee Swanstrom
LeseprobeAdipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance (p. 281-282)
Stephen E. Borst
Adiposity, especially visceral adiposity, is an important risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In addition to its role in storing energy, adipose tissue also secretes into the circulation a number of hormones and other factors that can alter the response to insulin in distant tissues, such as liver and muscle. Many of these factors are cytokines, which have been associated with the immune system.
Fat-derived hormones that can enhance insulin signaling include leptin, adiponectin, and possibly visfatin. Those impairing insulin signaling include tumor necrosis factor- , resistin, and several of the interleukins. Obesity has also been identified as a low-grade inflammatory state. Several possible mechanisms are discussed whereby rapid growth of adipose tissue might trigger a local inflammatory response. It is suggested that this inflammatory response and associated release of cytokines may constitute the link between obesity and insulin resistance.
Key Words: Tumor necrosis factor, resistin, adiponectin, interleukins, free fatty acids, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, insulin signaling.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are the most common metabolic diseases in Western society, together affecting as much as half of the adult population (1). Not only is the prevalence of these conditions high, but it also continues to increase. Insulin resistance a prediabetic condition, characterized by a failure of target organs to respond normally to insulin. Insulin resistance includes a central component (incomplete suppression of hepatic glucose output) and a peripheral component (impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue) (2). When increased insulin secretion is no longer sufficient to prevent hyperglycemia, the s
ubject progresses from insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is associated with other conditions such as central obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, all risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The constellation of these metabolic abnormalities has been termed metabolic syndrome.
Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. In addition to the total amount of fat, distribution of adipose tissue also important, with most studies concluding that visceral fat contributes considerably more to insulin resistance than does subcutaneous fat (3). However, one report, by Misra al., documented a robust correlation between posterior abdominal subcutaneous fat and insulin resistance (4). Underscoring the importance of visceral fat is the report by Klein et al. that liposuction, resulting in a substantial reduction of subcutaneous fat, did not enhance insulin responsiveness in insulin-resistant subjects (5). In rats, we (6) and others (7) have found that surgical removal of visceral fat reverses insulin resistance.
Traditionally, adipose tissue has been regarded largely as a depot for stored fat. More recently, it has become clear that adipose tissue plays an active role in energy metabolism and is the source of hormones, cytokines, and metabolites that play an important role in whole-body metabolism (8). The role of these substances may be either autocrine or endocrine. Adipose tissue, especially visceral fat, is the source of a number of substances that might play a role in the development of insulin resistance. Among the latter are tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- , adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, resistin, and free fatty acids. The difference in the metabolic effects of visceral versus subcutaneous fat may be attributed both to differences in the hormones secreted by the two types of fat and to the fact that hormones secreted by visceral fat reach the liver in high concentration.
The latter is due to the fact that visceral fat drains into the portal circulation, whereas subcutaneous fat drains into the systemic circulation (8). This review will focus on the regulation of insulin responsiveness by adipokines and on evidence supporting the hypothesis that these hormones play a role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance.
From the reviews:
"This is one of next valuable monographs of well known Nutrition & Health Series. It contains a great majority of up to date information about such rapidly growing field as endocrinology of adipose tissue and its relation to obesity. ' obesitologists, diabetologists, endocrinologists and several other experts of special related fields will consider this monograph as one of valuable acquisition of their library." (Endocrine Regulations, 2008)
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